The imperative for restoration can sometimes be very strong due to social and political expectations of a ‘quick fix’ to reef damage. However, economic costs and ecological complexity can make restoration a risky endeavor. In particular, restoration is likely to be an expensive failure if the causes of degradation (chronic stressors such as pollution, for example) have not been effectively addressed.
Restoration actions can be divided into two main types:
- Passive restoration — usually involves removing anthropogenic stressors that are impeding natural recovery. These actions will often be done as part of broader fisheries management, watershed management, or local management intervention strategies.
- Active restoration — usually involves more direct actions, such as re-attachment of dislodged biota, transplantation or physical manipulation of the substratum.
The following pages provide an overview of key issues and resources relevant to active restoration, with a focus on: