Abesamis, R.A., A. Green, G.R. Russ, and C.R.L. Jadloc. 2014. The intrinsic vulnerability to fishing of coral reef fishes and their differential recovery in fishery closures. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 24(4): 1033-1063.
ADB (Asian Development Bank). 2013. Economics of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the Coral Triangle.
Adger, W. N., T.P. Hughes, C. Folke, S.R. Carpenter, and J. Rockström. 2005. Social-ecological resilience to coastal disasters. Science 309 (5737): 1036-1039.
Adger, W.N. 2000. Social and ecological resilience: are they related? Progress in Human Geography 24(3): 347-364.
Aeby, G. 2003. Corals in the genus Porites are susceptible to infection by a larval trematode. Coral Reefs 22: 216.
Aeby, G. 2009. Baseline levels of coral disease in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: Galloway, S.B., Bruckner, A.W., Woodley, C.M. (eds.). Coral health and disease in the Pacific: Vision for action. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCOOS 97 and CRCP 7 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 168-188.
Aeby, G., M. Hutchinson, and P. MacGowan. 2008. Hawaii's Rapid Response Contingency Plan for events of coral bleaching, disease or crown-of-thorns starfish outbreaks. Proceedings from the development of the Rapid Response Contingency Plan workshops 2008. The Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources.
Aeby, G., Work, T., Didonato, E. 2009. Coral and crustose coralline algae disease on the reefs of American Samoa. In: Galloway, S.B., Bruckner, A.W., Woodley, C.M. (eds.). Coral health and disease in the Pacific: Vision for action. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCOOS 97 and CRCP 7 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 190-213.
Aeby, G.S. 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of infection of Porites trematodiasis on the reefs of Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. Bulletin of Marine Science 80(1): 209-218.
Aeby, G.S. and D.L. Santavy. 2006. Factors affecting susceptibility of the coral Montastraea faveolata to black-band disease. Marine Ecology Progress Series 318: 103-110.
Aeby, G.S., G.J. Williams, E. Franklin, J. Haapkyla, C.D. Harvell, S. Neale, C. Page, L. Raymundo, B. Vargas-Angel, B. Willis, T. Work, and S. Davy. 2011. Growth Anomalies on the Coral Genera Acropora and Porites are Strongly Associated with Host Density and Human Population Size. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16887.
Aeby, G.S., M. Ross, G.J. Williams, T.D. Lewis, and T.M. Work. 2010. Disease dynamics of Montipora white syndrome within Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii: distribution, seasonality, virulence, and transmission. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 91: 1-8.
Agardy, T. and J. Alder (Ed.) (2005). Coastal Systems, in: Hassan, R. et al. (Ed.) Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Current State and Trends, Volume 1. Findings of the Condition and Trends Working Group of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Series, 1: pp. 513-549.
AGEDI (Abu Dhabi Global Environmental Data Initiative). 2014. Building Blue Carbon Projects - An Introductory Guide. AGEDI/EAD. Published by AGEDI. Produced by GRID-Arendal, A Centre Collaborating with UNEP, Norway. (pdf)
Agostini, V.N., S.W. Margles, J.K. Knowles, S.R. Schill, R.J. Bovino, R.J. Blyther. 2015. Marine Zoning in St. Kitts and Nevis: A Design for Sustainable Management in the Caribbean. Ocean & Coastal Management 104: 1-10.
AIMS (Australian Institute of Marine Science). 2012. Crown of Thorns Starfish on the Great Barrier Reef: The AIMS Long Term Monitoring Program Surveys. (Website)
AIMS (Australian Institute of Marine Science). 2017. Crown of Thorns Starfish. (Website)
Albins, M.A. and M.A. Hixon. 2008. Invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) reduce recruitment of Atlantic coral-reef fishes. Marine Ecology Progress Series 367: 233-238.
Allan, C. and G.H. Stankey. 2009. Adaptive Environmental Management: A Practitioner's Guide. The Netherlands: Dordrecht. ISBN 978-90-481-2710-8
Almany, G.R., M.L. Berumen, S.R. Thorrold, S. Planes, and G.P. Jones. 2007. Local replenishment of coral reef fish populations in a marine reserve. Science 316: 742-744.
Almany, G.R., S.R. Connolly, D.D. Heath, et al. 2009. Connectivity, biodiversity conservation and the design of marine reserve networks for coral reefs. Coral Reefs 28: 339-351.
Alongi, D.M. 2002. Present State and Future of the World’s Mangrove Forests. Environmental Conservation 29: 331-49.
Andersson, A., F. Mackenzie, and A. Lerman. 2006. Coastal ocean CO2-carbonic acid-carbonate sediment system of the Anthropocene. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 20: GB1S92. DOI:10.1029/2005GB002506.
Andreason, A.R. and P. Kotler. 2003. Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
Anthony, K.R.N. and P. Marshall. 2009. Coral reefs and climate change. In: A Marine Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Report Card for Australia 2009 (Eds. E.S. Poloczanska, A.J. Hobday and A.J. Richardson), NCCARF Publication 05/09.
Anthony, K.R.N., D.I. Kline, G. Diaz-Pulido, S. Dove, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2008. Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 105: 17442-17446.
Anthony, K.R.N., J.A. Maynard, G. Diaz-Pulido, P.J. Mumby, P.A. Marshall, L. Cao, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2011. Ocean acidification and warming will lower coral reef resilience. Global Change Biology 17: 1798-1808.
Anthony, K.R.N., P.A. Marshall, A. Abdulla, R. Beeden, C. Bergh, R. Black, C.M. Eakin, E.T. Game, M. Gooch, N.A.J. Graham, A. Green, S.F. Heron, R. van Hooidonk, C. Knowland, S. Mangubhai, N. Marshall, J.A. Maynard, P. McGinnity, E. McLeod, P.J. Mumby, M. Nyström, D. Obura, J. Oliver, H.P. Possingham, R.L. Pressey, G.P. Rowlands, J. Tamelander, D. Wachenfeld, and S. Wear. 2015. Operationalizing Resilience for Adaptive Coral Reef Management Under Global Environmental Change. Global Change Biology 21(1): 48-61.
Antonius, A. and B. Riegl. 1997. A possible link between coral disease and a corallivorous snail (Drupella cornus) outbreak in the Red Sea. Atoll Research Bulletin 447: 2-9.
Arkema, K.K., G. Guannel, G. Verutes, S.A. Wood, A. Guerry, M. Ruckelshaus, P. Kareiva, M. Lacayo, and J.M. Silver. 2013. Coastal Habitats Shield People and Property from Sea-level Rise and Storms. Nature Climate Change 3: 913–918. doi:10.1038/nclimate1944.
Armstrong, S. 2009. The status of the coral predator Drupella cornus at Ningaloo Marine Park. Science Division Information Sheet 11, March 2009. (pdf, 176k)
Arnold, S., R. Steneck, and P. Mumby. 2010. Running the gauntlet: inhibitory effects of algal turfs on the processes of coral recruitment. Marine Ecology Progress Series 414: 91-105.
Ault, J.S., S.G. Smith, J. Luo, M.E. Monaco, and R.S. Appeldoorn. 2008. Length-based Assessment of Sustainability Benchmarks for Coral Reef Fishes in Puerto Rico. Environmental Conservation 35 (3): 221–231.
Avila, E. and J.L. Carballo. 2009. A preliminary assessment of the invasiveness of the Indo-Pacific sponge Chalinula nematifera on coral communities from the tropical Eastern Pacific. Biological Invasions 11(2): 257-264. (Website)
Ayling, A.M. and A.L. Ayling. 1992. Preliminary information on the effects of Drupella spp. grazing on the Great Barrier Reef. In: Drupella cornus: a symposium. (ed.) S. Turner, Western Australia: Department of Conservation and Land Management, CALM Occasional Paper No. 3/92.
Babcock, E.A. and A.D. MacCall. 2011. How Useful Is the Ratio of Fish Density Outside Versus Inside No-Take Marine Reserves as a Metric for Fishery Management Control Rules? Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68: 343-359.
Babcock, E.A., W.J. Harford, R. Coleman, J. Gibson, J. Maaz, J.R. Foley, and M. Gongora. 2014. Bayesian Depletion Model Estimates of Spiny Lobster Abundance at Two Marine Protected Areas in Belize with or without In-Season Recruitment. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsu226.
Baird, A.H., R. Bhagooli, P.J. Ralph, and S. Takahashi. 2009. Coral bleaching: the role of the host. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24: 16-20. (pdf, 324k)
Baker, A.C., C.J. Starger, T.R. McClanahan, and P.W. Glynn. 2004. Corals' adaptive response to climate change: Shifting to new algal symbionts may safeguard devastated reefs from extinction. Nature 430: 741.
Baker, A.C., P.W. Glynn, and B. Riegl. 2008. Climate change and coral reef bleaching: An ecological assessment of long-term impacts, recovery trends and future outlook. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 80(4): 435-471.
Baker, D.M., S.E. MacAvoy, and K. Kim. 2007. Relationship between water quality, delta N-15, and aspergillosis of Caribbean sea fan corals. Marine Ecology Progress Series 343: 123-130.
Bally, M. and J. Garrabou. 2007. Thermodependent bacterial pathogens and mass mortalities in temperate benthic communities: a new case of emerging disease linked to climate change. Global Change Biology 13: 2078-2088.
Barrett, C.B. and M.R. Carter. 2001. Can’t Get Ahead for Falling Behind: New Directions for Development Policy to Escape Poverty and Relief Traps.
Beck, M.W (ed.). 2014. Coasts at Risk: An Assessment of Coastal Risks and the Role of Environmental Solutions. A Joint Publication of United Nations University - Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS), The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the Coastal Resources Center (CRC) at the University of Rhode Island Graduate School of Oceanography. (pdf, 11.4M)
Beck, M.W., C.C. Shepard, J. Birkmann, J. Rhyner, T. Welle, M. Witting, J. Wolfertz, J. Martens, K. Maurer, and P. Mucke. 2012. World Risk Report 2012. Alliance Development Works, Berlin. (pdf, 2.8M)
Beger, M., H.S. Grantham, R.L. Pressey, et al. 2010. Conservation planning for connectivity across marine, freshwater, and terrestrial realms. Biological Conservation 143: 565-575.
Bellwood, D.R., A.S. Hoey, J.L. Ackerman, and M. Depczynski. 2006. Coral bleaching, reef fish community phase shifts and the resilience of coral reefs. Global Change Biology 12 (9): 1587-1594.
Bellwood, D.R., T.P. Hughes, C. Folke, and M. Nystrom. 2004. Confronting the coral reef crisis. Nature 429: 827-833. (pdf, 475k)
Berkelmans, R. and M.J.H. van Oppen. 2006. The role of zooxanthellae in the thermal tolerance of corals: a ‘nugget of hope’ for coral reefs in an era of climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 273: 2305-2312.
Berkes, F. et al. 2006. Globalization, Roving Bandits, and Marine Resources. Science 311: 1557-1558.
Birkeland, C. 1982. Terrestrial runoff as a cause of outbreaks of Acanthaster planci (Echinodermata: Asteroidea). Marine Biology. Berlin, Heidelberg 69(2): 175-185.
Birkeland, C. and J.S. Lucas. 1990. Acanthaster planci: Major management problem of coral reefs. CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL. pp. 257.
Blanchon, P., A. Eisenhauer, J. Fietzke, and V. Liebetrau. 2009. Rapid sea-level rise and reef back-stepping at the close of the last interglacial highstand. Nature 458: 881-884.
Booth, D.J. and G.A. Beretta. 2002. Changes in a fish assemblage after a coral bleaching event. Marine Ecology Progress Series 245: 205-212. (Website)
Borger, J.L. 2005. Scleractinian coral diseases in south Florida: incidence, species susceptibility, and mortality. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 67: 249-258.
Botsford, L.W., F. Micheli, and A. Hastings. 2003. Principles for the design of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S25-31.
Boyett, H.V., D.G. Bourne, and B.L. Willis. 2007. Elevated temperature and light enhance progression and spread of black band disease on staghorn corals of the Great Barrier Reef. Marine Biology 151(5): 1711-1720.
Bradbury, R. 1991. Understanding Acanthaster. Coenoses 6(3): 121-126.
Bridgham, S.D., J.P. Megonigal J.K. Keller, N.B. Bliss, and C. Trettin. 2006. The Carbon Balance of North American Wetlands. Wetlands 26: 889-916.
Brodie, J., K. Fabricius, G. De'ath, and K. Okaji. 2005. Are increased nutrient inputs responsible for more outbreaks of crown-of-thorns starfish? An appraisal of the evidence. Marine Pollution Bulletin 51(1-4): 266-278.
Brown, B.E. 1997. Coral bleaching: causes and consequences. Coral Reefs 16: S129-S138.
Brown, B.E. et al. 2002. Exploring the basis of thermotolerance in the reef coral Goniastrea aspera. Marine Ecology Progress Series 242: 119-129.
Bruckner, A.W. 2002. Priorities for effective management of coral diseases. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-OPR-22, 54 pp.
Bruckner, A.W. and R.J. Bruckner. 2006. Consequences of yellow band disease (YBD) on Montastraea annularis (species complex) populations on remote reefs off Mona Island, Puerto Rico. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 69: 67-73.
Bruno, J., C. Siddon, J. Witman, P. Colin, and M. Toscano. 2001. El Nino related coral bleaching in Palau, Western Caroline Islands. Coral Reefs 20: 127-136.
Bruno, J.F., E.R. Selig, K.S. Casey, C.A. Page, B.L. Willis, C.D. Harvell, H. Sweatman, and A.M. Melendy. 2007. Thermal stress and coral cover as drivers of coral disease outbreaks. PLoS Biology 5: 1220-1227.
Bruno, J.F., L.E. Petes, C.D. Harvell, and A. Hettinger. 2003. Nutrient enrichment can increase the severity of coral diseases. Ecology Letters 6: 1056-1061.
Bunce, L., P. Townsley, R. Pomeroy, and R. Pollnac. 2000. Socioeconomic Manual for Coral Reef Management. GCRMN. Australian Institute of Marine Science. 251pp
Burke, L., D. Bryant, J. McManus, and M. Spalding. 2008. Reefs at Risk. World Resources Institute (WRI): 56 p.
Burke, L., K. Reytar, M. Spalding, and A. Perry. 2011. Reefs at Risk Revisited. Washington, D.C., World Resources Institute (WRI), The Nature Conservancy, WorldFish Center, International Coral Reef Action Network, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre and Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, 114p. (pdf, 6.4M)
Burke, L., L. Selig and M. Spalding. 2002. Reefs at Risk in Southeast Asia
Burkepile, D.E. and M.E. Hay. 2008. Herbivore species richness and feeding complementarity affect community structure and function on a coral reef. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 16201-6.
Butchart, S.H.M., M. Walpole, B. Collen, A. van Strien, J.P.W. Scharlemann, et al. 2010. Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines. Science 328: 1164-1168.
Caddy, J.F. 2002. Limit Reference Points, Traffic Lights, and Holistic Approaches to Fisheries Management with Minimal Stock Assessment Input. Fisheries Research 56: 133-137.
Cahoon, D.R., P.R. Hensel, J. Rybczyk, K.L. McKee, E.E. Proffitt, and B.C. Perez. 2003. Mass tree mortality leads to mangrove peat collapse at Bay Islands, Honduras after Hurricane Mitch. Journal of Ecology 91(6): 1093-1105.
CARE. 2012. Good Practices Framework. Gender Analysis. (pdf)
Carilli, J.E., R.D. Norris, B.A. Black, S.M. Walsh, and M. McField. 2009. Local stressors reduce coral resilience to bleaching. PLoS ONE 4: 6324.
Carpenter, S., B. Walker, J.M. Anderies, and N. Abel. 2001. From Metaphor to Measurement: Resilience of What to What? Ecosystems 4(8): 765-781.
Carrigan, A.D. and M.L. Puotinen. 2011. Assessing the potential for tropical cyclone induced sea surface cooling to reduce thermal stress on the world's coral reefs. Geophysical Research Letters 38: L23604.
Carter, E., A. Soemodinoto, and A. White. 2010. Guide for Improving Marine Protected Area Management Effectiveness in Indonesia. Bali, Indonesia: The Nature Conservancy Indonesia Marine Program, 49pp.
CEA (California Environmental Association). 2012. Charting a Course to Sustainable Fisheries.
Cesar, H., P. Vanbeukerling, and S. Prince. 2002. An economic valuation of Hawaii's coral reefs. Hawai'i Coral Reef Initiative Research Program Final Report. 144 pp.
Cesar, H.J.S., L. Burke, and L. Pet-Soede. 2003. The Economics of Worldwide Coral Reef Degradation. Cesar Environmental Economics Consulting, Arnhem, and WWF-Netherlands, Zeist, The Netherlands. 23pp (pdf, 1.4M)
Chiappone, M., D. Swanson, and S. Miller. 2006. One-year response of Florida Keys patch reef communities to translocation of long-spined sea urchins (Diadema antillarum). (pdf, 1M)
Chmura G.L., S.C. Anisfeld, D.R. Cahoon, and J.C. Lynch. 2003. Global Carbon Sequestration in Tidal, Saline Wetland Soils. Global Biogeochemistry 17: 1111. doi:10.1029/2002GB001917.
Christensen, N.L., A.M. Bartuska, J.H. Brown, S. Carpenter, C. D'Antonio, R. Francis, J.F. Franklin, J.A. MacMahon, R.F. Noss, D.J. Parsons, C.H. Peterson, M.G. Turner, and R.G. Woodmansee. 1996. The Report of the Ecological Society of America Committee on the Scientific Basis for Ecosystem Management. Ecological Applications 6: 665-691. (Website)
Cinner, J., M.M.P.B. Fuentes, and H. Randriamahazo. 2009. Exploring Social Resilience in Madagascar's Marine Protected Areas. Ecology and Society 14.
Cinner, J.E., C. Folke, T. Daw, and C.C. Hicks. 2011. Responding to change: Using scenarios to understand how socioeconomic factors may influence amplifying or dampening exploitation feedbacks among Tanzanian fishers. Global Environmental Change-Human and Policy Dimensions 21: 7-12.
Cinner, J.E., T.R. McClanahan, N.A.J. Graham, T.M. Daw, J. Maina, S.M. Stead, A. Wamukota, K. Brown, A. Bodin. 2012. Vulnerability of coastal communities to key impacts of climate change on coral reef fisheries. Global Environmental Change 22(1): 12-20.
Clarke, P. and S. Jupiter. 2010. Principles and Practice of Ecosystem-Based Management: A Guide for Conservation Practitioners in the Tropical Western Pacific. Wildlife Conservation Society. Suva, Fiji.
Cochrane, K.L. and S.M. Garcia. 2009. A Fishery Manager's Guidebook.
Cohen, A. 2008. Declining calcification rates of Bermudan brain corals over the past 50 years. 11th ICRS, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
Community-based Risk Screening Tool. Community-based Risk Screening Tool (Website)
Connell, J.H., T.P. Hughes, and C.C. Wallace. 1997. A 30-year study of coral abundance, recruitment, and disturbance at several scales in space and time. Ecological Monographs 67: 461-488.
Conservation International. 2008. Economic Values of Coral Reefs, Mangroves, and Seagrasses: A Global Compilation. Center for Applied Biodiversity Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA, USA.
Cooley, S, H. Kite-Powel, and S. Doney. 2009. Ocean acidification's potential to alter global marine ecosystem services. Oceanography 22(4): 172-181.
Cooley, S. and S. Doney. 2009. Anticipating ocean acidification's economic consequences for commercial fisheries. Environmental Research Letters 4(2): 024007.
Cooper, A.B. 2006. A Guide to Fisheries Stock Assessment: From Data to Recommendations.
Cope, J.M. and A.E. Punt. 2009. Length-Based Reference Points for Data-limited Situations: Applications and Restrictions. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 1: 169-186.
Coral Triangle Initiative. 2014. Resources by Subject: Ecosystems Approach to Fisheries Management.
Corner, A., S. Lewandowsky, M. Phillips, and O. Roberts. 2015. The Uncertainty Handbook. Bristol: University of Bristol. (pdf, 1.7k)
Costanza, R. and C. Folke. 1997. Valuing ecosystem services with efficiency, fairness and sustainability as goals. In: Daily, G. (Ed.), Nature's Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp. 49-70.
Costanza, R., R. d'Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R.V. O'Neill, J. Paruelo, R.G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387: 253-260. (Website)
Costanza, R., R. de Groot, P. Sutton, S. van der Ploeg, S.J. Anderson, I. Kubiszewski, S. Farber, and R.K. Turner. 2014. Changes in the global value of ecosystem services. Global Environmental Change 26: 152-158. (pdf, 508k)
Costello, C., D. Ovando, R. Hilborn, S.D. Gaines, O. Deschenes, and S.E. Lester. 2012. Status and Solutions for the World’s Unassessed Fisheries. Science 338 (6106): 517-520.
Coulthard, S. 2012. Can We Be Both Resilient and Well, and What Choices Do People Have? Incorporating Agency into the Resilience Debate from a Fisheries Perspective. Ecology and Society 17(1): 4.
CRC Reef Research Centre. 2003. Crown-of-thorns starfish on the Great Barrier Reef. Current State of Knowledge, November 2003, revised addition.
Creel, L. 2003. Ripple Effects: Population and Coastal Regions. Population Reference Bureau.
Crooks, S., M. von Unger, L. Schile, C. Allen, and R. Whisnant. 2017. Understanding Strategic Blue Carbon Opportunities in the Seas of East Asia. Report by Silvestrum Climate Associates for Partnerships in Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia (PEMSEA), Conservation International and The Nature Conservancy, with support from the Global Environment Facility and United Nations Development Program.
Cruise Lines International Association Inc. 2010. The State of the Cruise Industry in 2010: Confident and Offering New Ships, Innovation, and Exception Value. (Website)
Cumming, R. L. 1999. Predation on reef-building corals: multiscale variation in the density of three corallivorous gastropods, Drupella spp. Coral Reefs 18: 147-157.
Cumming, R.L. 2009. Population outbreaks and large aggregations of Drupella on the Great Barrier Reef. GBRMPA. (pdf, 524k)
Cunningham, S., M. Dunn, and D. Whitmarsh. 1985.. Fisheries Economics: An Introduction. Mansell Publishing Ltd. London.
Dalton, S., S. Godwin, S. Smith, and L. Pereg. 2010. Australian subtropical white syndrome: a transmissible, temperature-dependent coral disease. Marine and Freshwater Research 61: 342-350.
Danielsen, F., N.D. Burgess, P.M. Jensen, and K. Pirhofer-Walzl. 2010. Environmental monitoring: the scale and speed of implementation varies according to the degree of peoples involvement. Journal of Applied Ecology 47(6): doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2664.2010.01874.x.
Danovaro, R. et al. 2008. Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environmental Health Perspective 116(4): 441-447.
DAR (Department of Land and Natural Resources, Division of Aquatic Resources). 2003. State of Hawai'i Aquatic Invasive Species Management Plan. 205 pp.
De Young, C., D. Soto, T. Bahri, and D. Brown. 2012. Building Resilience for Adaptation to Climate Change in the Fisheries and Aquaculture Sector. Proceedings of a Joint FAO/OECD Workshop 23–24 April 2012. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
De’ath,G., K.E. Fabricius, H. Sweatman, and M. Puotinen. 2012. The 27-year Decline of Coral Cover on the Great Barrier Reef and its Causes. PNAS 109(44): 17995–17999. (pdf, 935k)
DeMartini, E.E., B.C. Mundy, and J.J. Polovina. 1999. Status of nearshore sports and commercial fishing and impacts on biodiversity in the tropical Pacific. In: Marine and Coastal Biodiversity in the Tropical Island Pacific Region (Eldredge, L.G., Maragos, J.E., Holthus, P.F. and Takeuchi, H.F. eds.). Volume 2: 345-346.
Diaz-Pulido, G., L.J. McCook, S. Dove, R. Berkelmans, G. Roff, et al. 2009. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: Climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery. PLoS ONE 4(4): e5239. (Website)
Dick, E.J. and A.D. MacCall. 2011. Depletion-Based Stock Reduction Analysis: A Catch-Based Method for Determining Sustainable Yields for Data-Poor Fish Stocks. Fisheries Research 110(2): 331-341.
Dierking, J., I.D. Williams, and W.J. Walsh. 2009. Diet composition and prey selection of the introduced grouper species peacock hind (C. argus) in Hawaii. Fisheries Bulletin 107: 464-476.
Dixon, I. 1996. Renewed crown-of-thorns threat. Marine Pollution Bulletin 32(3): 252.
Dixon, J.A., L.F. Scura, and T. van't Hof. 1993. Meeting Ecological and Economic Goals: Marine Parks in the Caribbean. Ambio 22: 117-125.
Done, T.J. 1988. Simulation of recovery of pre-disturbance size structure in populations of Porites spp. damaged by the crown of thorns starfish Acanthaster planci. Marine Biology 100: 51-61.
Done, T.J. 1992. Phase-shifts in coral reef communities and their ecological significance. Hydrobiologia 247: 121-132.
Done, T.J. and R.E. Reichelt. 1998. Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Fisheries Ecosystem Management: Generic Tools and Performance Indices. Ecological Applications 8(1): S110-S118.
Donner, S D., W.J. Skirving, C.M. Little, M. Oppenheimer, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2005. Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change. Global Change Biology 11: 2251-2265.
Donner, S.D. 2009. Coping with Commitment: Projected Thermal Stress on Coral Reefs under Different Future Scenarios. PLoS ONE 4(6): e5712.
Douglas, A.E. 2003. Review: Coral bleaching--how and why? Marine Pollution Bulletin 46: 385-392.
Drury, C. and D. Lirman. 2017. Making Biodiversity Work for Coral Reef Restoration. Biodiversity 18(1): 23-25.
Duarte, C.M., J. Middelburg, and N. Caraco. 2005. Major Role of Marine Vegetation on the Oceanic Carbon Cycle. Biogeosciences 2: 1-8.
Duarte, C.M., W.C. Dennison, R.J.W. Orth, and T.J.B. Carruthers. 2008. The Charisma of Coastal Ecosystems: Addressing the Imbalance. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 31: 233-38.
Dudley, N. (ed.) 2008. Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN
Eakin, C.M., J.A. Morgan, S.F. Heron, T.B. Smith, G. Liu, et al. 2010. Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005. PLoS ONE 5(11): e13969.
EcoAmerica. 2013. Communicating on Climate: 13 Steps and Guiding Principles. (pdf, 145k)
Edwards, H.J., I.A. Elliott, R.L. Pressey, and P.J. Mumby. 2010. Incorporating ontogenetic dispersal, ecological processes and conservation zoning into reserve design. Biological Conservation 143: 457-470.
Ehler, C. and F. Douvere. 2009. Marine Spatial Planning: a step-by-step approach toward ecosystem-based management. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and Man and the Biosphere Programme. IOC Manual and Guides No. 53, ICAM Dossier No. 6. Paris: UNESCO.
Ehler, C., and F. Douvere. 2007. Visions for a Sea change. Report of the first international workshop on Marine Spatial Planning. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission and Man and the Biosphere Programme. IOC manual and guides no.48, IOCAM Dossier no. 4. Paris: UNESCO.
Eldredge, L.G. 1994. Perspectives in aquatic exotic species management in the Pacific Islands. In: Introductions of commercially significant aquatic organisms to the Pacific Islands, Volume 1. South Pacific Commission, Noumea.
Eldredge, L.G. and J.T. Carlton. 2002. Hawai'ian Marine Invasions: a preliminary assessment. Pacific Science 56 (2): 211-212.
Englund, R.A. and L.G. Eldredge. 2001. Fishes. In: Hawai'i's Invasive species. A guide to invasive plants and animals in the Hawai'ian Islands. Eds. Staples, G.W. & Cowie, R.H. p. 32-40. Mutual Publishing; Bishop Museum Press, Honolulu.
Epstein, N., et al. 2001. Strategies for gardening denuded coral reef areas: the applicability of using different types of coral material for reef restoration. Restoration Ecology 9(4): 432-442.
Estrada, G.C.D., M.L.D. Soares, V. Fernadez, and P.M.M. Almeida. 2015. The Economic Evaluation of Carbon Storage and Sequestration as Ecosystem Services of Mangroves: A Case Study from Southeastern Brazil. International Journal of Biodiversity Science, Ecosystem Services & Management 11(1): 29-35. DOI: 10.1080/21513732.2014.963676
Fabricius, K.E., K. Okaji, and G. De'ath. 2010. Three lines of evidence to link outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci to the release of larval food limitation. Coral Reefs 29(3): 593-605. (Website)
Fabricius, K.I. 2008. Disturbance gradients on inshore and offshore coral reefs caused by a severe tropical cyclone. Limnology and Oceanography 53: 690-704.
Fabry, V.J., Seibel, B.A., Feely, R.A., and Orr, J.C. 2008. Impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna and ecosystem processes. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 65: 414-432.
FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). 2007. The World’s Mangroves 1980-2005. Rome, Italy: FAO.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2003. The ecosystem approach to fisheries. FAO Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries, No. 4, Suppl. 2. Rome. 112 pp.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2005. Nutritional Elements of Fish.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2009 . Report of the FAO/UNEP Expert Meeting on Impacts of Destructive Fishing Practices, Unsustainable Fishing, and Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing on Marine Biodiversity and Habitats.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2012. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Rome.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2014. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2014. EAFnet.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations). 2014. The State of the World’s Fisheries and Aquaculture.
Feely, R., et al. 2004. Impact of anthropogenic CO2 on the CaCO3 system in the oceans. Science 305 (5682): 362-366.
Feely, R.A., S.C. Doney, and S.R. Cooley. 2009. Ocean acidification: Present conditions and future changes in a high-CO2 world. Oceanography 22(4): 36-47.
Fenical, W. 1996. Marine biodiversity and the medicine cabinet: the status of new drugs from marine organisms. Oceanography 9: 23-27.
Fernandes, L., A. Green, J. Tanzer, A. White, P.M. Alino, J. Jompa, P. Lokani, A. Soemodinoto, M. Knight, B. Pomeroy, H. Possingham, and B. Pressey. 2012. Biophysical principles for designing resilient networks of marine protected areas to integrate fisheries, biodiversity and climate change objectives in the Coral Triangle. Report prepared by The Nature Conservancy for the Coral Triangle Support Partnership, 152 pp. (pdf, 3.3M; executive summary pdf, 479k)
Fernandes, L., J. Day, A. Lewis, et al. 2005. Establishing representative no-take areas in the Great Barrier Reef: large-scale implementation of theory on marine protected areas. Conservation Biology 19: 1733-1744.
Fernando, H.J.S., J.L. McCulley, S.G. Mendis, and K. Perera. 2005. Coral poaching worsens tsunami destruction in Sri Lanka. Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 86: 301-304.
Ferrario, F., M.W. Beck, C.D. Storlazzi, F. Micheli, C.C. Shepard, and L. Airoldi. 2014. The Effectiveness of Coral Reefs for Coastal Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation. Nature Communications 5(3794). doi:10.1038/ncomms4794. (pdf, 632k)
Field, C.D. 1995. Impacts of expected climate change on mangroves. Hydrobiologia 295(1-3): 75-81.
Field, M.E., A.S. Ogston, and C.D. Storlazzi. 2011. Rising sea level may cause decline of fringing coral reefs. Eos Trans. AGU 92(33): 273.
Flower, K.R., S.R. Atkinson, R. Brainard, C. Courtney, B.A. Parker, J. Parks, R. Pomeroy, and A. White. 2013. Toward Ecosystem based Coastal Area and Fisheries Management in the Coral Triangle: Integrated Strategies and Guidance. Jakarta, Indonesia: U.S. Coral Triangle Initiative Support Program for USAID. (pdf, 1.8M)
Folke C. 2006. Resilience: The Emergence of a Perspective for Social-Ecological Systems Analyses. Global Environmental Change 16(3): 253-267.
Folke, C., S.R. Carpenter, and T. Elmqvist. 2002. Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations. Ambio 31: 437-440.
Folke, C., S.R. Carpenter, B. Walker, M. Scheffer, T. Chapin, and J. Rockström. 2010. Resilience Thinking: Integrating Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability. Ecology and Society 15(4): 20.
Fonseca, M.S., J. Kenworthy, and G.W. Thayer. 1998. Guidelines for the Conservation and Restoration of Seagrasses in the United States and Adjacent Waters. NOAA'S Coastal Ocean Program. Decision Analysis Series No. 12. (pdf)
FORCE. 2014. Towards Reef Resilience and Sustainable Livelihoods: A Handbook for Caribbean Coral Reef Managers.
Forsman, Z.H., C.A. Page, R.J. Toonen, and D. Vaughan. 2015. Growing Coral Larger and Faster: Micro-Colony-Fusion as a Strategy for Accelerating Coral Cover. PeerJ: Oct 20; 3:e1313. (pdf, 12.2M)
Fraser, N., B. Crawford, and J. Krusen. 2000. Best Practices for Crown-of-thorns clean-ups. Proyek Pesisir Special Publication. Coastal Resources Center Coastal Management Report #2225. Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Islands, Narragansett, Rhode Island. 38 pp.
French, J., and C. Blair-Stevens. 2005. Social Marketing Pocket guide (1st Edition). National Social Marketing Centre for Excellence.
Friedlander, A., A. Greta, E. Brown, A. Clark, S. Coles, S. Dollar, C. Hunter, P. Jokiel, J. Smith, B. Walsh, I. Williams, and W. Wiltse. 2005. The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the Main Hawaiian Islands. In: The State of Coral Reef Ecosystems of the United States and Pacific Freely Associated States, edited by J. Waddell. Silver Spring, MD: NOAA/NCCOS Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment's Biogeography Team.
Frieler, K., M. Meinshausen, A. Golly, M. Mengel, K. Lebek, S. D. Donner, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2012. Limiting global warming to 2°C is unlikely to save most coral reefs. Nature Climate Change. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1674.
Friend, M. and J.C. Franson. 1999. Field Manual of Wildlife Diseases: General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds. U. S. Geological Survey. Washington, D.C.
Froese, R. 2004. Keep it Simple: Three Indicators to Deal with Overfishing. Fish and Fisheries 5(1): 86-91.
Fujita, R., D.J. Thornhill, K. Karr, C.H. Cooper, and L.E. Dee. 2013. Assessing and Managing Data‐Limited Ornamental Fisheries in Coral Reefs. Fish and Fisheries 15(4): 661–675.
Future of Fish 2015. Future of Fish. Making Sense of Wild Seafood Supply Chains. A report created for The Nature Conservancy. 2015.
Galloway, S.B., A.W. Bruckner, and C.M. Woodley (eds). 2009. Coral health and disease in the Pacific: Vision for action. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NCCOS 97 and CRCP 7. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD, 314 pp.
Garcia, S.M. and A.A. Rosenberg. 2010. Food Security and Marine Capture Fisheries: Characteristics, Trends, Drivers and Future Perspectives. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365: 2869-2880.
Garpe, K.C., S.A.S. Yahya, U. Lindahl, and M.C. Ohman. 2006. Long-term effects of the 1998 coral bleaching event on reef fish assemblages. Marine Ecology Progress Series 315: 237-247.
Gatusso, J.-P., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and H.-O. Pörtner 2014. Cross-chapter box on coral reefs. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Field, C.B., V.R. Barros, D.J. Dokken, K.J. Mach, M.D. Mastrandrea, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma, E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 97-100.
GBRMPA (Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority). 2014. Crown-Of-Thorns Starfish Control Guidelines, GBRMPA, Townsville. (pdf, 4.1k)
Geiser, D.M., J.W. Taylor, K.B. Ritchie, and G.W. Smith. 1998. Cause of sea fan death in the West Indies. Nature 394 (6689): 137-138.
GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO-IOC/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Environmental Protection). 1996. The Contributions of Science to Integrated Coastal Management. GESAMP Reports and Studies No. 61.
Glick, P., B.A. Stein, and N.A. Edelson. 2011. Scanning the Conservation Horizon: A Guide to Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment. Washington, D.C.: National Wildlife Federation. (pdf, 4.8M)
Glynn, P. 1984. Widespread coral mortality and the 1982-1983 El Nino warming event. Environmental Conservation 11: 133-146.
Glynn, P. and W.H. de Weerdt. 1991. Elimination of two reef building hydrocorals following the 1982-83 El Nino warming event. Science 253: 69-71.
Glynn, P.W. 1993. Coral reef bleaching: Ecological perspectives. Coral Reefs 12: 1-17.
Glynn, P.W. 1996. Coral reef bleaching: Facts, hypotheses and implications. Global Change Biology 2(6): 495-509.
Glynn, P.W. and L. D'Croz. 1990. Experimental evidence for high temperature stress as the cause of El Nino coincident mortality. Coral Reefs 8: 181-191.
Goergen, E.A. and D.S. Gilliam. 2017. Outplanting Technique, Host Genotype, and Site Affect the Initial Success of Outplanted Acropora cervicornis. PeerJ, In Review.
Goergen, E.A., Z. Ostroff, and D.S. Gilliam. 2017. Genotype and Attachment Technique Influence the Growth and Survival of Line Nursery Corals. Restoration Ecology. doi:10.1111/rec.12545. (pdf, 460k)
Golbuu, Y., A.L. Isechal, J.W. Idechong, R.van Woesik. 2011. Spatial variability of coral bleaching in Palau during a regional thermal stress event in 2010. (pdf, 1.2M)
Gombos, M., D. Ramsay, A. Webb, J. Marra, S. Atkinson, and B. Gorong (eds.). 2014. Coastal Change in the Pacific Islands: A Guide to Support Community Understanding and Decision Making on Coastal Erosion and Flooding Issues. Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia: Micronesia Conservation Trust. (pdf, 8.1M)
Gombos, M., S. Atkinson, A. Green, and K. Flower (eds.). 2013. Designing Effective Locally Managed Areas in Tropical Marine Environments: A Booklet to Help Sustain Community Benefits through Management for Fisheries, Ecosystems, and Climate Change. Jakarta, Indonesia: USAID Coral Triangle Support Partnership. (pdf, 14.8M)
Gombos, M., S. Atkinson, and S. Wongbusarakum 2013.. Adapting To A Changing Climate: Guide To Local Early Action Planning (LEAP) And Management Planning. Micronesia Conservation Trust: Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. 99 pp.
Gordon, D., B.C. Murray, L. Pendleton, and B. Victor. 2011. Financing Options for Blue Carbon Opportunities and Lessons from the REDD+ Experience. Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions Report: NI R 11-11. (pdf)
Graham, N., D.R. Bellwood, J.E. Cinner, T.P. Hughes, A.V. Norström, and M. Nyström. 2013. Managing Resilience to Reverse Phase Shifts in Coral Reefs. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 541–548.
Graham, N.A.J., M. Spalding, and C. Sheppard. 2010. Reef Shark Declines in Remote Atolls Highlight the Need for Multi- Faceted Conservation Action. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 20: 543-548.
Graham, N.A.J., N.K. Dulvy, S. Jennings, and N.V.C. Polunin. 2005. Size-Spectra as Indicators of the Effects of Fishing on Coral Reef Fish Assemblages. Coral Reefs 24: 118-124.
Graham, N.A.J., S. Jennings, M. MacNeil, D. Mouillot, and S.K. Wilson. 2015. Predicting climate-driven regime shifts versus rebound potential in coral reefs. Nature 518: 94-97.
Graham, N.A.J., S.K. Wilson, S. Jennings, N.V.C. Polunin, J.P. Bijoux, and J. Robinson. 2006. Dynamic fragility of oceanic coral reef ecosystems. PNAS 103 (22): 8425-8429. (Website)
Grantham, H.S., Agostini, V.N., Wilson, J., Mangubhai, S., Hidayat, N., Muljadi, A., Muhajir, Rotinsulu, C., Mongdong, M., Beck, M.W., Possingham, H.P. 2013. A comparison of zoning analyses to inform the planning of a marine protected area network in Raja Ampat, Indonesia. Marine Policy 38: 184-194 (Website)
Green, A., L. Fernandes, G. Almany, R. Abesamis, E. McLeod, P.M. Aliño, A.T. White, R. Salm, J. Tanzer, and R.L. Pressey. 2014. Designing Marine Reserves for Fisheries Management, Biodiversity Conservation, and Climate Change Adaptation, Coastal Management 42(2): 143-159.
Green, A.L. and D.R. Bellwood. 2009. Monitoring functional groups of herbivorous reef fishes as indicators of coral reef resilience: A practical guide for coral reef managers in the Asia Pacific region. IUCN working group on Climate Change and Coral Reefs. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 70 pp. (pdf, 3.1M)
Green, A.L., A.P. Maypa, G.R. Almany, K.L. Rhodes, R. Weeks, R.A. Abesamis, M.G. Gleason, P.J. Mumby, and A.T. White. Larval Dispersal and Movement Patterns of Coral Reef Fishes, and Implications for Marine Reserve Network Design. Biological Reviews doi:10.1111/brv.1255. (pdf, 549 k)
Griffin, J.N., E.C. Schrack, K.A. Lewis, I.B. Baums, N. Soomdat, and B.R. Silliman. 2015. Density‐dependent Effects on Initial Growth of a Branching Coral Under Restoration. Restoration Ecology May 1; 23(3): 197-200.
Grinsted A., J.C. Moore, and S. Jefrejeva. 2009. Reconstructing sea level from paleo and projected temperatures 200 to 2100 AD. Climate Dynamics 34: 461-472.
Groves, C., Game, E.T., Anderson, M.G., Cross, M., Enguist, C., Ferdana, Z., Girvetz, E., Gondor, A., Hall, K.R., Higgins, J. 2012. Incorporating climate change into systematic conservation planning. Biodiversity and Conservation 21 (7) 1651-1671. DOI:10.1007/s10531-012-0269-3.
Guest, J.R., A.H. Baird, J.A. Maynard, E. Muttaqin, A.J. Edwards, S.J. Campbell, K. Yewdall, Y.A. Affendi, L.M. Chou. 2012. Contrasting Patterns of Coral Bleaching Susceptibility in 2010 Suggest an Adaptive Response to Thermal Stress. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33353. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033353.
Guilbeau, B.P., F.P. Harry, R.P. Gambrell, F. Knopf, and K.M. Dooley. 2003. Algae Attachment on Carbonated Cements in Fresh and Brackish Waters - Preliminary Results. Ecological Engineering 20: 309-319. 10.1016/S0925-8574(03)00026-0
Haddon, M. 2011. Modelling and Quantitative Methods in Fisheries. Taylor & Francis.
Halford, A., A. Cheal, D. Ryan, and D. Williams. 2004. Resilience to large-scale disturbance in coral and fish assemblages on the Great Barrier Reef. Ecology 85: 1892-1905.
Halpern, B. S., S. E., Lester, and J. B. Kellner. 2010. Spillover from marine reserves and the replenishment of fished stocks. Environmental Conservation 36: 268-276.
Hammeill, A., B. Riche, and N. Clot (eds.) 2007. Community-based Risk Screening Tool: Adaptation and Livelihoods (CRiSTAL). IISD, IUCN, SEI-US, and Intercooperation.
Hamner, R.M., D.W. Freshwater, and P.E. Whitfield. 2007. Mitochondrial cytochrome b analysis reveals two invasive lionfish species with strong founder effects in the western Atlantic. Journal of Fish Biology 71: 214-222.
Hamylton, S.M., A.B. Hagan, and N. Doak. 2012. Observations of dugongs at Aldabra Atoll, western Indian Ocean: lagoon habitat mapping and spatial analysis of sighting records. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. DOI:10.1080/13658816.2011.616510 (pdf, 360k)
Harrington, L., K. Fabricius, G. De'ath, and A. Negri. 2004. Recognition and selection of settlement substrata determine post-settlement survival in corals. Ecology 85(12): 9.
Harrison, H.B., D.H. Williamson, R.D. Evans, G.R. Almany, S.R. Thorrold, G.R. Russ, K.A. Feldheim, L. van Herwerden, S. Planes, M. Srinivasan, M.L. Berumen, and G.P. Jones. 2012. Larval export from marine reserves and the recruitment benefit for fish and fisheries. Current Biology 22(11): 1023-1028.
Harvell, C.D., E. Jordan-Dahlgren, S. Merkel, E. Rosenberg, L. Raymundo, G. Smith, E. Weil, and B. Willis. 2007. Coral disease, environmental drivers and the balance between coral and microbial associates. Oceanography 20(1): 173-195.
Harvell, C.D., K. Kim, J.M. Burkholder, RR. Colwell, P.R. Grimes, E.E. Hofmann, E.K. Lipp, A.D. Osterhaus, R.M. Overstreet, J.W. Porter, G.W. Smith, and G.R. Vasta. 1999. Emerging marine diseases-climate links and anthropogenic factors. Science 285: 1505-1510.
Hassan, R., R. Scholes, and N. Ash (eds). 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends: findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Condition and Trends Working Group.
Hawkins, J.P. and C.M. Roberts. 1994. The Growth of Coastal Tourism in the Red Sea: Present and Future Effects on Coral Reefs. Ambio 23(8): 503-508.
Hawkins, J.P., C.M. Roberts, T. VantHof, K. deMeyer, J. Tratalos, and C. Aldam. 1999. Effects of recreational scuba diving on Caribbean coral and fish communities. Conservation Biology 13(4): 888-897.
Hay, M.E. and D.B. Rasher. 2010. Coral reefs in crisis: reversing the biotic death spiral. Biology Reports 2: 71.
Heenan, A., R. Pomeroy, R. Brainard, A. Amri, P. Alino, N. Armada, J. Bell, W. Cheung, et al. 2013. Incorporating Climate Change and Ocean Acidification into an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM) Plan. Honolulu, HI: The USAID Coral Triangle Support Partnership. (pdf, 3.4M)
Helfman, G.S. 2007. Fish conservation: a guide to understanding and restoring global aquatic biodiversity and fishery resources. Island Press, Washington, DC.
Hellmann, J.A., J.S. Byers, B.G. Bierwagen, and J.S. Dukes. 2008. Five potential consequences of climate change for invasive species. Conservation Biology 22(3): 534-543.
Herr, D. and E. Landis. 2016. Coastal Blue Carbon Ecosystems. Opportunities for Nationally Determined Contributions. Policy Brief. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN and Washington, DC, USA: TNC.
Herr, D., E. Trines, J. Howard, M. Silvius, and E. Pidgeon. 2014. Keep it Fresh or Salty. An Introductory Guide to Financing Wetland Carbon Programs and Projects. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, CI and WI. iv + 46pp. (pdf)
Herr, D.T. Agardy, D. Benzaken, F. Hicks, J. Howard, E. Landis, A. Soles and T. Vegh. 2015. Coastal “Blue” Carbon. A Revised Guide to Supporting Coastal Wetland Programs and Projects using Climate Finance and other Financial Mechanisms. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. (pdf)
Hilborn, R. and D. Ovando. 2014. Reflections on the Success of Traditional Fisheries Management. ICES Journal of Marine Science 71(5): 1040-1046.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O. 1999. Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Marine and Freshwater Research 50 :839-866.
Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P.J. Mumby, A.J. Hooten, R.S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, C.D. Harvell, et al. 2007. Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification. Science 318: 1737-1742.
Hoey, A.S. and D.R. Bellwood. 2009. Limited Functional Redundancy in a High Diversity System: Single Species Dominates Key Ecological Process on Coral Reefs. Ecosystems 12(8): 1316-1328.
Holland, K.N., and C.G. Meyer. 2003. Human Activities in Marine Protected Areas: Impact on Substrates. Kaneohe, HI: Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology.
Holling, C.S. (ed.) 1978. Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management. Chichester: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-99632-7.
Holling, C.S. 1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems. Institute of Resource Ecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada 4: 1-23.
Holling, C.S. 1973. Resilience and Stability in Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1-23.
Hoon, V. and G. Sriskanthan. 2008. Socioeconomic Monitoring guidelines for coastal managers of South Asia, SocMon SA. IUCN/CORDIO.
Horton, R., C. Herweijer, C. Rosenzweig, J. Liu, V. Gornitz, and A.C. Ruane. 2008. Sea level rise projections for current generation CGCMs based on the semi-empirical method. Geophysical Research Letters 35: doi:10.1029/2007GL032,486.
Howard, J., A. Sutton-Grier, D. Herr, J. Kleypas, E. Landis, E. Mcleod, E. Pidgeon, and S. Simpson. 2017. Clarifying the Role of Coastal and Marine Systems in Climate Mitigation. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 15: 42-50.
Howard, J., E. McLeod, S. Thomas, E. Eastwood, M. Fox, L. Wenzel, and E. Pidgeon. 2017. The Potential to Integrate Blue Carbon into MPA Design and Management. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 27(S1): 100-115.
Howard, J., S. Hoyt, K. Isensee, M. Telszewski, and E. Pidgeon (eds.). 2014. Coastal Blue Carbon: Methods for Assessing Carbon Stocks and Emissions Factors in Mangroves, Tidal Salt Marshes, and Seagrasses. Conservation International, Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, International Union for Conservation of Nature. Arlington, Virginia, USA. (pdf)
Hubbard, D.K., R.B. Burke, I.P. Gill, W.R. Ramirez, and C. Sherman. 2008. Coral-reef geology: Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. In: Coral Reefs of the World, vol. I, Coral Reefs of the USA (Eds. B.M. Riegl and R.E. Dodge), Springer, New York.
Hudson, H. 2000. First aid for massive corals infected with black band disease, Phormidium corallyticum: an underwater aspirator and post-treatment sealant to curtail re-infection. In: Hallock and French (eds). Diving for Science...2000. Proceedings of the 20th Annual Scientific Diving Symposium, American Academy of Underwater Sciences. St Pete Beach, FL.
Hughes, T., D.R. Bellwood, C. Folke, R.S. Steneck, and J. Wilson. 2005. New paradigms for supporting the resilience of marine ecosystems. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20(7): 380-386.
Hughes, T.P. 1994. Catastrophes, phase shifts, and large-scale degradation of a Caribbean Coral Reef. Science 265: 1547-1551.
Hughes, T.P. 1994. Catastrophes, Phase Shifts and Large-Scale Degradation of a Caribbean Coral Reef. Science 265 (5178): 1547-1551.
Hughes, T.P. and J.E. Tanner. 2000. Recruitment failure, life histories, and long-term decline of Caribbean corals. Ecology 81: 2250-2263.
Hughes, T.P., A.H. Baird, E.A. Dinsdale, N.A. Moltschaniwskyj, M.S. Pratchett, J.E. Tanner, and B.L. Willis. 2012. Assembly rules of reef corals are flexible along a steep climatic gradient. Current Biology 22(8): 736-741.
Hughes, T.P., D.R. Bellwood, C.S. Folke, L.J. McCook, and J.M. Pandolfi. 2007. No-Take Areas, Herbivory and Coral Reef Resilience. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22: 1-3.
Hughes, T.P., M.J. Rodrigues, D.R. Bellwood, D. Ceccarelli, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, L. McCook, N. Moltschaniwskyj, M.S. Pratchett, R.S. Steneck, and B. Willis. 2007. Phase shifts, herbivory, and the resilience of coral reefs to climate change. Current Biology 17: 1-6.
Huntington, B.E., M.W. Miller, R. Pausch and L. Richter. 2017. Facilitation in Caribbean Coral Reefs: High Densities of Staghorn Coral Foster Greater Coral Condition and Reef Fish Composition. Oecologia May 1; 184(1): 247-57.
Huq, A., E.B. Small, P.A. West, M.I. Huq, R. Rahman, and R.R. Colwell. 1983. Ecological relationships between Vibrio cholerae and planktonic crustacean copepods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 45: 275-283.
Hutchings, P.A., R.W. Hilliard, and S.L. Coles. 2002. Species Introductions and Potential for Marine Pest Invasions into Tropical Marine Communities, with Special Reference to the Indo-Pacific. Pacific Science 56(2): 223-233.
IMM 2008. Sustainable Livelihood Enhancement and Diversification (SLED): A Manual for Practitioners. IUCN International Union for the Conservation of Nature.
IPCC 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-30.
IPCC. 2007. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis (Eds. S. Solomon et al.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York.
IPCC. 2014a. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland, 151 pp.
IPCC. 2014b. 2013 Supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands, Hiraishi T., T. Krug, K. Tanabe, N. Srivastava, J. Baasansuren, M. Fukuda, and T.G. Troxler (eds). Published: IPCC, Switzerland. (Website)
ISU (The Prince's Charities' International Sustainability Unit). 2012. Towards Global Sustainable Fisheries: The Opportunity for Transition
IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). Climate Change Adaptation
IUCN-WCPA. 2007. Establishing networks of marine protected areas: A guide for developing national and regional capacity for building MPA networks. Non-Technical Summary Report. Washington, DC: IUCN-WCPA, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and The Nature Conservancy.
IUCN-WCPA. 2008. Establishing Marine Protected Area Networks - making it happen. IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas, Washington D.C. (pdf, 6.3M)
IUCN. 2004. Managing Marine Protected Areas: A Toolkit for the Western Indian Ocean. IUCN Eastern African Regional Programme, Nairobi, Kenya. 172pp.
IUCN. 2009. About Marine Invasive Species (pdf)
J.L. McBride, J. Chan, K. Emanuel, G. Holland, C. Landsea, I. Held, J.P. Kossin, A.K. Srivastava, and M. Sugi. 2010. Tropical Cyclones and Climate Change. Nature Geoscience 3: 157-163.
Jackson, J.B.C., M.K. Donovan, K.L. Cramer, and V.V. Lam (eds). 2014. Status and Trends of Caribbean Coral Reefs: 1970–2012. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network.
Jackson, J.B.C., M.X. Kirby, W.H. Berger, K.A. Bjorndal, L.W. Botsford, B.J. Bourque, R.H. Bradbury, R. Cooke, J. Erlandson, J.A. Estes, T.P. Hughes, S. Kidwell, C.B. Lange, H.S. Lenihan, J.M. Pandolfi, C.H. Peterson, R.S. Steneck, M.J. Tegner, and R.R. Warner. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293: 629-637.
Jeftic, L. and United Nations Environment Programme. 2006. The State of the Marine Environment: Trends and Processes. The Hague: UNEP/GPA Coordination Office.
Jennings, S. and N.V.C. Polunin. 1995. Comparative Size and Composition of Yield from Six Fijian Reef Fisheries. Journal of Fish Biology 46(1): 28-46.
Jevrejeva, S., J.C. Moore, and A. Grinsted. 2010. How will sea level respond to changes in natural and anthropogenic forcings by 2100? Geophysical Research Letters 37: L07703.
Johnson, M.E., C. Lustic, E. Bartels, I.B. Baums, D.S. Gilliam, E.A. Larson, D. Lirman, M.W. Miller, K. Nedimyer, and S. Schopmeyer. 2011. Caribbean Acropora Restoration Guide: Best Practices for Propagation and Population Enhancement: 1-64. (pdf, 5.5M)
Jones, A. and R. Berkelmans. 2010. Potential Costs of Acclimatization to a Warmer Climate: Growth of a Reef Coral with Heat Tolerant vs. Sensitive Symbiont Types. PLoS ONE 5(5): e10437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010437.
Jones, G.P., H.B. Harrison, D.H. Williamson, R.D. Evans, G R. Almany, K.A. Feldheim, L. van Herwerden, and G.R. Russ. 2010. Do marine reserves enhance important local coral reef fisheries? In: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies Symposium: Coral Reefs in a Changing Environment, editor. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, Canberra.
Jones, G.P., McCormick, M.I., Srinivasan, M., and Eagle, J.V. 2004. Coral decline threatens fish biodiversity in marine reserves. PNAS 101 (21): 8251-8253. (Website)
Jones, G.P., Milicich, M.J., Emslie, M.J., Lunow, C. 1999. Self-recruitment in a coral reef fish population. Nature 402: 802-804.
Jones, G.P., S. Planes, and S.R. Thorrold. 2005. Coral reef fish larvae settle close to home. Current Biology 15: 1314-1318.
Karr, K.A., R. Fujita, B.S. Halpern, C.V. Kappel, L. Crowder, K.A. Selkoe, P.M. Alcolado, and D. Rader. 2015.. Thresholds in Caribbean Coral Reefs: Implications for Ecosystem‐Based Fishery Management. Journal of Applied Ecology 52(2): 402–412.
Kauffman, J.B., C. Heider, J. Norfolk, and F. Payton. 2014. Carbon Stocks of Intact Mangroves and Carbon Emissions Arising from their Conversion in the Dominican Republic. Ecological Applications 24: 518–527.
Keck, M. and P. Sakdapolrak 2013. What is Social resilience? Lessons Learned and Ways Forward. Erdkunde: 5-19.
Kelly, Ryan P., et al. 2011. Mitigating local causes of ocean acidification with existing laws. Science 332 (6033): 1036-1037.
Kilduff, P., J. Carmichael, R. Latour, and T.L. Berger (eds.). 2009. Guide to Fisheries Science and Stock Assessments.
Kim, K. and C.D. Harvell. 2002. Aspergillosis of sea fan corals: dynamics in the Florida Keys. In: Porter, J.W., Porter, K.G., editors. The Everglades, Florida Bay, and coral reefs of the Florida Keys: an ecosystem sourcebook. Boca Raton: CRC. pp. 813-824.
Kirwan, M.L. and J.P. Megonigal. 2013.
Tidal Wetland Stability in the Face of Human Impacts and Sea-level Rise. Nature 504(7478): 53-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12856
Kleypas, J.A., and C. Langdon. 2006. Coral reefs and changing seawater chemistry. In: Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management. (Eds. Phinney, J.T., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Kleypas, J., Skirving, W., Strong, A.) AGU Monograph Series, Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Vol 61, pp. 73-110. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Kleypas, J.A., R.A. Feely, V.J. Fabry, C. Langdon, C.L. Sabine, and L.L. Robbins. 2006. Impacts of Ocean Acidification on Coral Reefs and Other Marine Calcifiers: A Guide for Further Research, report of a workshop held 18-20 April 2005, St. Petersburg, FL, sponsored by National Science Foundation, NOAA and the U.S. Geological Survey, 88pp.
Kloet, A. and A. Morgan. 2007. Conservation Strategies: Awareness and Communications. Resources for Implementing the WWF Project & Programme Standards. World Wildlife Fund. March 2007.
Kroeker, K.J., R.L. Kordas, R.N. Crim, and G.G. Singh. 2010. Meta-analysis reveals negative yet variable effects of ocean acidification on marine organisms. Ecology Letters 13: 1419-1434.
Kuffner, I.B., E. Bartels, A. Stathakopoulos, et al. 2017. Plasticity in Skeletal Characteristics of Nursery-raised Staghorn Coral, Acropora cervicornis. Coral Reefs 36: 679. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00338-017-1560-2
Kura, Y., C. Revenga, E. Hoshino, and G. Mock. 2004. Fishing for Answers: Making Sense of the Global Fish Crisis. World Resources Institute (WRI).
Kurihara, H. 2008. Effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on the early developmental stages of invertebrates. Marine Ecology Progress Series 373: 275-284.
Kuta, K.G. and L.L. Richardson. 2002. Ecological aspects of black band disease of corals: relationships between disease incidence and environmental factors. Coral Reefs 21: 393-398.
Ladd, M.C., A.A. Shantz, K. Nedimyer and D.E. Burkepile. 2016. Density Dependence Drives Habitat Production and Survivorship of Acropora cervicornis Used for Restoration on a Caribbean Coral Reef. Frontiers in Marine Science 3:261. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2016.00261
Lam, K. and P.K.S. Shin. 2006. Severe bioerosion caused by an outbreak of corallivorous Drupella and Diadema at Hoi Ha Wan Marine Park, Hong Kong. Coral Reefs 26: 893.
Larson, E.A. 2010.. Establishment of an Acropora cervicornis (Staghorn Coral) Nursery: An Evaluation of Survivorship and Growth Masters of Science Master's Thesis. Nova Southeastern University. http://nsuworks.nova.edu/occ_stuetd/213/
Le Quara, C., M.R. Raupach, J.G. Canadell, et al. 2009. Trends in the sources and sinks of carbon dioxide. Nature Geoscience 2: 831-836.
Ledlie, M.H., N.A.J. Graham, J.C. Bythell, S.K. Wilson, S. Jennings, et al. 2007. Phase shifts and the role of herbivory in the resilience of coral reefs. Coral Reefs 26: 641-653.
Leujak, W. and R.F.G. Ormond. 2007. Visitor Perceptions and the Shifting Social Carrying Capacity of South Sinai's Coral Reefs. Environmental Management 39: 472-489.
Levin, L.A. 2006. Recent progress in understanding larval dispersal: new directions and digressions. Integrative & Comparative Biology 46(3): 282-297.
Lewis, R.R. 2005. Ecological engineering for successful management and restoration of mangrove forests. Ecological Engineering 24: 403-418. (pdf, 569k)
Lewis, R.R. and B. Streever. 2000. Restoration of Mangrove Habitat. Vicksburg (MS): U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center. Report no. ERDC TN-WRP-VN-RS-3.2. (pdf, 647k)
Lewis, S.M. 1986. The role of herbivorous fishes in the organization of a Caribbean reef community. Ecological Monographs 56(3): 183-200.
Lirman, D. and S. Schopmeyer. 2016. Ecological Solutions to Reef Degradation: Optimizing Coral Reef Restoration in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic. PeerJ: 4:e2597. doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2597. (pdf, 3.3M)
Lirman, D., S. Schopmeyer V. Galvan, C. Drury, A.C. Baker, and I.B. Baums. 2014.
Growth Dynamics of the Threatened Caribbean Staghorn Coral Acropora cervicornis: Influence of Host Genotype, Symbiont Identity, Colony Size, and Environmental Setting. PLoS ONE 9(9): e107253. (pdf, 763k)
Liu, G., A.E. Strong, and W. Skirving. 2003. Remote sensing of sea surface temperatures during 2002 Barrier Reef coral bleaching. Eos Trans. AGU 84(15): 137-141, doi:10.1029/2003EO150001.
Livesley, S.J. and S.M. Andrusiak. 2012. Temperate Mangrove and Salt Marsh Sediments are a Small Methane and Nitrous Oxide Source but Important Carbon Store. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 9: 19-27.
Loya, Y., K. Sakai, K. Yamazato, Y. Nakano, H. Sembali, and R. van Woesik. 2001. Coral bleaching: The winners and losers. Ecology Letters 4: 122-131. doi: 10.1046/j.1461-0248.2001.00203.x.
Lugo-Fernández, A., H. H. Roberts, W.J. Wiseman Jr., and B. L. Carter. 1998. Water Level and Currents of Tidal and Infragravity Periods at Tague Reef, St. Croix (USVI). Coral Reefs 17(4): 343-349.
MacCall, A.D. 2009. Depletion-Corrected Average Catch: A Simple Formula for Estimating Sustainable Yields in Data-Poor Situations. ICES Journal of Marine Science 66: 2267-2271.
Macia, S., M.P. Robinson, and A. Nalevanko. 2007. Experimental dispersal of recovering Diadema antillarum increases grazing intensity and reduces macroalgal abundance on a coral reef. Marine Ecology Progress Series 348: 173-182.
MacPherson, R., R. Wilson, and L. Foote. 2008. Voluntary Standards as a Tool for Increasing the Sustainability of the Marine Recreation Industry and Improving MPA Effectiveness in Hawaii and Mesoamerica. Proceedings of the 11th International Coral Reef Symposium, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 7-11 July 2008. Session number 23. (pdf, 131k)
Madin, J.S., M.J. O'Donnell, and S.R. Connolly. 2008. Climate-mediated mechanical changes to post-disturbance coral assemblages. Biology Letters 4: 490-493.
Malleret-King, D., I. Wanyoni, L. Bunce, and B. Pomeroy. 2006. Socio-economic monitoring guidelines for coastal managers of the Western Indian Ocean. SocMon WIO. CORDIO East Africa publication. (Version 1).
Manning, R.E. 1999. Studies in outdoor recreation: Search and research for satisfaction (2nd ed.). Corvallis: Oregon State University Press.
Manning, R.E. 2004. Recreation planning frameworks. In: M. J. Manfredo, J.J. Vaske, B.L. Bruyere, D.R. Field, and P.J. Brown (Eds.). Society and natural resources: A summary of knowledge (pp. 83-92). Jefferson, MO: Modern Litho.
Manning, R.E. 2007. Parks and carrying capacity: Commons without tragedy. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.
Manzello, D.P., M. Brandt, T.B. Smith, D. Lirman, J.C. Hendee, and R.S. Nemeth. 2007. Hurricanes benefit bleached corals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 104: 12035-12039.
Marshall, N., P. Marshall, J. Tamelander, D. Obura, D. Malleret-King, and J. Cinner. 2009. A Framework for Social Adaptation to Climate Change: Sustaining Tropical Coastal Communities and Industries. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN.
Marshall, N.A. and P.A. Marshall. 2007. Conceptualizing and operationalizing social resilience within commercial fisheries in northern Australia. Ecology and Society 12(1): 1. (Website)
Marshall, N.A., P.A. Marshall, A. Abdulla, and A.B. Rouphael. 2010. Toward improved MPA compliance among fishers: understanding links between resource dependency and attitude to conservation in the Red Sea. Ambio 39: 305.
Marshall, N.A., P.A. Marshall, J. Tamelander, D. Obura, D. Mallaret-King, and J.E. Cinner. 2010. A Framework for Social Adaptation to Climate Change: Sustaining Tropical Coastal Communities and Industries. Gland, Switzerland.
Marshall, N.A., R.C. Tobin, M. Gooch, A. Hobday, and P.A. Marshall. 2013. Social vulnerability of marine resource users to extreme weather events. Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-10013-19651-10026.
Marshall, P. and H. Schuttenberg. 2006. A Reef Manager's Guide to Coral Bleaching. Townsville, Australia, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. (pdf, 5.4M)
Maynard, J., J. Wilson, S. Campbell, S. Mangubhai, N. Setiasih, J. Sartin, R. Ardiwijaya, D. Obura, P. Marshall, R. Salm, S. Heron, and J. Goldberg. 2012. Assessing coral resilience and bleaching impacts in the Indonesian archipelago. Technical Report to The Nature Conservancy with contributions from Wildlife Conservation Society and Reef Check Indonesia. 62 pp. (pdf, 1.7M)
Maynard, J.A., P.A. Marshall, J.E. Johnson, S. Harman. 2010. Building resilience into practical conservation: identifying local management responses to global climate change in the southern Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 29: 381-391.
Maypa, A. 2012. Mechanisms by which Marine Protected Areas Enhance Fisheries Benefits of Neighboring Areas. Doctoral Dissertation: Unversity of Hawai’i at Manoa.
Maypa, A.P. and A.L. Green. 2011. Movement patterns and life history strategies of key coral reef and coastal pelagic fisheries species for consideration in MPA network design in the Coral Triangle. A report for the Coral Triangle Support Partnership.
McClanahan, T.R. 1994. Coral-eating snail Drupella cornus population increases in Kenyan coral reef lagoons. Marine Ecology Progress Series 115: 131-137.
McClanahan, T.R. 1997. Dynamics of Drupella cornus populations on Kenyan coral reefs. 8th International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 633-638.
McClanahan, T.R. 1999. Predation and the control of the sea urchin Echinometra viridis and fleshy algae in the path reefs of Glovers Reef, Belize. Ecosystems 2: 511-523.
McClanahan, T.R. 2008. Response of the coral reef benthos and herbivory to fishery closure management and the 1998 ENSO disturbance. Oecologica 155: 169-177.
McClanahan, T.R., A.H. Baird, P.A. Marshall, and M.A. Toscano. 2004. Comparing bleaching and mortality responses of hard corals between southern Kenya and the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 48: 327-335.
McClanahan, T.R., A.T. Kamukuru, N. Muthiga, M. Gilagabher, and D. Obura. 1996. Effect of sea urchin reductions on algae, coral, and fish populations. Conservation Biology 10: 136-154.
McClanahan, T.R., J. Maina, C.J. Starger, P. Herron-Perez, and E. Dusek. 2005. Detriments to post-bleaching recovery of corals. Coral Reefs 24: 230-246.
McClanahan, T.R., M. Ateweberhan, C.A. Muhando, J. Maina, and M.S. Mohammed. 2007. Effects of climate and seawater temperature variation on coral bleaching and mortality. Ecological Monographs 77: 503-525. (pdf, 905k)
McClanahan, T.R., N.A. Graham, M.A. MacNeil, N.A. Muthiga, J.E. Cinner, J.H. Bruggemann, and S.K. Wilson. 2011. Critical Thresholds and Tangible Targets for Ecosystem-Based Management of Coral Reef Fisheries. PNAS 108(41): 17230-17233.
McClanahan, T.R., N.A. Muthiga, and R.A. Coleman. 2011. Testing for top-down control: can post-disturbance fisheries closures reverse algal dominance? Aquatic Conservation Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 21: 658-675.
McClanahan, T.R., N.A. Muthiga, and S. Mangi. 2001. Coral and algal changes after the 1998 coral bleaching: interaction with reef management and herbivores on Kenyan reefs. Coral Reefs 19: 380-391.
McClanahan, T.R., N.A.J. Graham, M.A. MacNeil, and J.E. Cinner. 2014. Biomass‐Based Targets and the Management of Multispecies Coral Reef Fisheries. Conservation Biology 29(2): 409-417.
McClanahan, T.R., S.D. Donner, J.A. Maynard, M.A. MacNeil, N.A.J. Graham, et al. 2012. Prioritizing key resilience indicators to support coral reef management in a changing climate. PLoS ONE 7(8): e42884. (website)
McCook, L.J. et al. 2010. Adaptive management of the Great Barrier Reef: a globally significant demonstration of the benefits of networks of marine reserves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107: 18278-18285.
McGilliard, C.R., R. Hilborn, A. MacCall, A.E. Punt, and J.C. Field. 2011. Can Information from Marine Protected Areas Be Used to Inform Control-Rule-Based Management of Small-Scale, Data-Poor Stocks? ICES Journal of Marine Science. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsq151.
Mcleod, E. 2012. Marine protected areas: Static boundaries in a changing world. In: Levin, S.A. (ed.). Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 2nd Edition. Elsevier, New York
McLeod, E. and K.R.N. Anthony. 2011. Ocean acidification -- Management. In: Fogel, D., Fredericks, S., and Spellerberg, I. (eds.). The Encyclopedia of Sustainability: Vol. 6. Measurements, Indicators, and Research Methods for Sustainability. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing.
McLeod, E. and R.V. Salm. 2006. Managing Mangroves for Resilience to Climate Change. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 64pp and Mangrove Action Project (pdf, 1.8M)
Mcleod, E., A. Green, E. Game, K. Anthony, J. Cinner, S.F. Heron, J. Kleypas, C.E. Lovelock, J.M. Pandolfi, R.L. Pressey, R. Salm, S. Schill, and C. Woodroffe. 2012. Integrating climate and ocean change vulnerability into conservation planning. Coastal Management 40: 651-672.
Mcleod, E., B. Szuster, E.L. Tompkins, N. Marshall, T. Downing, Wongbusarakum, A. Patwardhan, M. Hamza, C. Anderson, S. Bharwani, L. Hansen, and P. Rubinoff. 2015. Using Expert Knowledge to Develop a Vulnerability and Adaptation Framework and Methodology for Application in Tropical Island Communities. Coastal Management 43: 365-382.
Mcleod, E., G.L. Chmura, S. Bouillon, R. Salm, M. Björk, C.M. Duarte, C.E. Lovelock, W.H. Schlesinger, and B.R. Silliman. 2011. A Blueprint for Blue Carbon: Toward an Improved Understanding of the Role of Vegetated Coastal Habitats in Sequestering CO2. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9(10): 552-560. doi:10.1890/110004
Mcleod, E., K.R.N. Anthony, A. Andersson, R. Beeden, Y. Golbuu, J. Kleypas, K. Kroeker, D. Manzello, R. Salm, H. Schuttenberg, and J.E. Smith. 2013. Preparing to manage coral reefs for ocean acidification: Lessons from coral bleaching. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 11: 20-27. (pdf, 696k)
McLeod, E., R. Salm, A. Green, and J. Almany. 2009. Designing Marine Protected Area Networks to Address the Impacts of Climate Change. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7: 362-370. (pdf, 651k)
McLeod, E., R.V. Salm, K. Anthony, B. Causey, E. Conklin, R. Feely, J. Guinotte, G. Hofmann, J. Hoffman, P. Jokiel, J. Kleypas, P. Marshall, and C. Veron. 2008. The Honolulu Declaration on Ocean Acidification and Reef Management. The Nature Conservancy, U.S.A., and IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
Mcleod, E., S.W. Margles Weis, S. Wongbusarakum, M. Gombos, A. Daze, A. Otzelberger, A. Hammill, V. Agostini, D. Urena Cot, and M. Wiggins. 2015. Community-Based Climate Vulnerability and Adaptation Tools: A Review of Tools and Their Applications. Coastal Management 43: 439-458.
McManus, J.W. 1997. Tropical Marine Fisheries and the Future of Coral Reefs: A Brief Review with Emphasis on Southeast Asia.
McMullen, C.P. and J. Jabbour. 2009. Climate Change Science Compendium 2009. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, EarthPrint.
Merryfield, W. J. 2006. Changes to ENSO under CO2 Doubling in a Multimodel Ensemble. Journal of Climate 19(16): 4009-27. (pdf, 2.9M)
Middlebrook, R., O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and W. Leggat. 2008. The effect of thermal history on the susceptibility of reef-building corals to thermal stress. Journal of Experimental Biology 211: 1050-1056.
Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Current State and Trends.
Miller, M.W. 2001. Corallivorous snail removal: evaluation of impact on Acropora palmata. Coral Reefs 19: 293-295.
Miller, M.W. and A.M. Szmant. 2006. Lessons learned from experimental key-species restoration. In: Precht, W.F. (ed.) Coral reef restoration handbook: The rehabilitation of an ecosystem under siege. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Molnar, J.L., R.L. Gamboa, C. Revenga, and M.D. Spalding. 2008. Assessing the global threat of invasive species to marine biodiversity. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(9): 485-492.
Moore, F. and B. Best. 2001. Coral Reef Crisis: Causes and Consequences. In: Papers Presented at a Symposium held at the 2001 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Moran, P. 1997. Crown-of-thorns starfish: questions and answers. Australian Institute of Marine Science.
Moran, P.J. 1990. Acanthaster planci (L.): biographical data. Coral Reefs 9:95-96.
Morton, B., G. Blackmore, and C.T. Kwok. 2002. Corallivory and prey choice by Drupella rugosa (Gastropoda : Muricidae) in Hong Kong. Journal of Molluscan Studies 68: 217-223 Part 3.
MSC (Marine Stewardship Council). 2014. Fish as Food
Mumby, P.J. 2009. Herbivory versus corallivory: Are parrotfish good or bad for Caribbean coral reefs? Coral Reefs 28: 683-690.
Mumby, P.J. and A. Hastings. 2008. The impact of ecosystem connectivity on coral reef resilience. Journal of Applied Ecology 45: 854-862.
Mumby, P.J. and A.R. Harborne. 2010. Marine Reserves Enhance the Recovery of Corals on Caribbean Reefs. PLoS ONE 5: e8657. (pdf, 262k)
Mumby, P.J. and R.S. Steneck. 2008. Coral reef management and conservation in light of rapidly-evolving ecological paradigms. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23: 555-563.
Mumby, P.J., A. Hastings, and H.J. Edwards. 2007. Thresholds and the resilience of Caribbean coral reefs. Nature 450: 98-101.
Mumby, P.J., A.J. Edwards, J.E. Arias-Gonzalez, K.C. Lindeman, P.G. Blackwell, A. Gall, M.I. Gorczynska, A.R. Harborne, C.L. Pescod, H. Renken, C.C.C. Wabnitz, and G. Llewellyn. 2004. Mangroves enhance the biomass of coral reef fish communities in the Caribbean. Nature 427: 533-536.
Mumby, P.J., et al. 2006. Fishing, trophic cascades, and the process of grazing on coral reefs. Science 311: 98-101.
Munday, P., et al. 2010. Replenishment of fish populations is threatened by ocean acidification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 107: 12930-12934.
Murdiyarso, D., J. Purbopuspito, J.B. Kauffman, M.W. Warren, S.D. Sasmito, D.C. Donato, S. Manuri, H. Krisnawati, S. Taberima, and S. Kurnianto. 2015. The Potential of Indonesian Mangrove Forests for Global Climate Change Mitigation. Nature Climate Change 5(12): 1089.
Murray B.C., L. Pendleton, W.A. Jenkins, and S. Sifleet. 2011. Green Payments for Blue Carbon Economic Incentives for Protecting Threatened Coastal Habitats. Durham, NC: Nicholas Institute for Environmental Policy Solutions. (pdf)
Muthiga, N.A. and T.R. McClanahan. 1997. The effect of visitor use on the hard coral communities of the Kisite Marine Park, Kenya. Proceedings of the 8th International Coral Reef Symposium 2: 1879-1882.
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2001. NMFS Office of Protected Resources (Website)
National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS). 2001. NMS (Website)
Nedimyer, K., k. Gaines, and S. Roach. 2011. Coral Tree Nursery©: An innovative approach to growing corals in an ocean-based field nursery. International Journal of the Bioflux Society 4(4). (pdf, 480k)
Needham, M.D., J.F. Tynon, R.L. Ceurvorst, R.L. Collins, W.M. Connor, and M.J.W. Culnane. 2008. Recreation carrying capacity and management at Kailua Beach Park on Oahu, Hawaii. Final project report for Hawaii Coral Reef Initiative Research Program. Corvallis: Oregon State University, Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society. 74pp.
Nelson, R.C. 1996. Hydraulic Roughness of Coral Reef Platforms. Applied Ocean Research 18: 265-274. 10.1016/S0141-1187(97)00006-0
Newton, K., I.M. Côté, G.S. Pilling, S. Jennings, and N.K. Dulvy. 2007. Current and Future Sustainability of Island Coral Reef Fisheries.
Nicholls, R.J. and A. Cazenave. 2010. Sea-level rise and its impacts on coastal zones. Science Magazine 328 (5985): 1517-1520.
NOAA (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). Coral Reef Conservation Program: Fisheries.
NOAA (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2011. Impacts from Land-based Sources of Pollution (Website)
NOAA (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2014.
NOAA (U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). 2014.. Coral Reefs – An Important Part of Our Future.
NOAA Coastal Services Center. 2010. Introduction to Planning and Facilitating Effective Meetings. Charleston, SC.
NOAA-NMFS. 2016. Management Plan for Caribbean Acropora Population Enhancement (pdf, 982k)
Nystrom, M. and C. Folke. 2001. Spatial Resilience of Coral Reefs. Ecosystems 4: 406-417.
Nystrom, M., N.A.J. Graham, J. Lokrantz, and A. Norstrom. 2008. Capturing the cornerstones of coral reef resilience: Linking theory to practice. Coral Reefs 27: 795-809.
O'Brien, K. and L. Sygna. 2013. Responding to Climate Change: The Three Spheres of Transformation, In Proceedings of Transformation in a Changing Climate, 19-21 June 2013, Oslo, Norway. Universitetet i Oslo. ISBN 978-82-570-2000-2. Del 1.
O'Leary, J.K. and T.R. McClanahan. 2010. Trophic cascades result in large-scale coralline algae loss through differential grazer effects. Ecology 91: 3584-3597. (Website)
O’Neil, K.L. 2015. Land-Based Coral Nurseries: A Valuable Tool for Production and Transplantation of Acropora cervicornis. M.S. Marine Biology Thesis. Nova Southeastern University. (pdf, 5.2M)
Obura, D.O. and G. Grimsditch. 2009. Resilience Assessment of coral reefs: Assessment protocol for coral reefs, focusing on coral bleaching and thermal stress. IUCN working group on Climate Change and Coral Reefs. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland. 70 pp. (pdf 4.9M)
Olds, A.D., R.M. Connolly, K.A. Pitt, and P.S. Maxwell. 2012. Habitat connectivity improves reserve performance. Conservation Letters 5: 56-63.
Oliver, T.A. and S.R. Palumbi. 2011. Do fluctuating temperature environments elevate coral thermal tolerance? Coral Reefs 30: 429-440.
Olsen, S., J. Tobey, and M. Kerr. 1997. A common framework for learning from ICM experiences. Ocean and Coastal Management 37(2): 155-174.
Orams, M.B. 2002. Feeding wildlife as a tourism attraction: a review of issues and impacts. Tourism Management 23(3): 281-293.
Orr, J.C., et al. 2005. Anthropogenic ocean acidification over the twenty-first century and its impact on calcifying organisms. Nature 437: 681-686.
Osborne, K., A.M. Dolman, S.C. Burgess, and K.A. Johns. 2011. Disturbance and the dynamics of coral cover on the Great Barrier Reef. PLoS ONE 6(3): 1995-2009.
Ovando, D., R.T. Deacon, S.E. Lester, C. Costello, T. Van Leuvan, K. McIlwain, C.K. Strauss, M. Arbuckle, R. Fujita, S. Gelcich, and H. Uchida. 2013. Conservation Incentives and Collective Choices in Cooperative Fisheries 37: 132-140.
Page, C. and B. Willis. 2008. Epidemiology of skeletal eroding band on the Great Barrier Reef and the role of injury in the initiation of this widespread coral disease. Coral Reefs 27: 257-272.
Page, C.A., D.N. Baker, D. Harvell, Y. Golbuu, L. Raymundo, S.J. Neale, et al. 2009. Influence of marine reserves on coral disease prevalence. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 87: 135-150.
Palmer, C.V., C.K. Modi, and L.D. Mydlarz. 2009. Coral Fluorescent Proteins as Antioxidants. PLoS One 4(10): e7298. (Website)
Palumbi, S.R. 2004. Marine Reserves and Ocean Neighborhoods: The Spatial Scale of Marine Populations and Their Management. Annual Review of Environment and Resources 29: 31-68.
Parrish, J.D., G.S. Aeby, E.J. Conklin, and G.L. Ivey. 2000. Interactions of non-indigenous blueline snapper (taape) with native deep-water fishery species. Project completion report to Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources.
Patrick, W.S., P. Spencer, O. Ormseth, J. Cope, J. Field, D. Kobayashi, T. Gedamke, E. Cortés, K. Bigelow, W. Overholtz, J. Link, and P. Lawson. 2009. Use of Productivity and Susceptibility Indices to Determine Stock Vulnerability, with Example Applications to Six U.S. Fisheries. NOAA Technical Memo. U.S. Department of Commerce.
Pauly, D., V. Christensen, J. Dalsgaard, R. Froese, and F. Torres Jr. 1998. Fishing Down Marine Food Webs. Science 279 (5352): 860-863.
Pecheux, M. 2002. CO2 increase, a direct cause of coral reef mass bleaching? Marine Life 12: 63-68.
Pelc, R., M. Baskett, T. Tanci, S. Gaines, and R. Warner. 2009. Quantifying larval export from South African marine reserves. Marine Ecology Progress Series 394: 65-78.
Pendleton, L., D.C. Donato, B.C. Murray, S. Crooks, W.A. Jenkins, S. Sifleet, C. Craft, J.W. Fourqurean, J.B. Kauffman, N. Marbà, P. Megonigal, E. Pidgeon, D. Herr, D. Gordon, and A. Baldera. 2012. Estimating Global “Blue Carbon” Emissions from Conversion and Degradation of Vegetated Coastal Ecosystems. PLoS One 7(9):e43542.
Perry, C. T., G.N. Murphy, P.S. Kench, S.G. Smithers, E.N. Edinger, R.S. Steneck, and P.J. Mumby. 2013. Caribbean-wide Decline in Carbonate Production Threatens Coral Reef Growth. Nature Communications 4(1402).
Pikitch, E.K., C. Santora , E.A. Babcock, A. Bakun, R. Bonfil, D.O. Conover, P. Dayton, P. Doukakis, D. Fluharty, B. Heneman, E.D. Houde, J. Link, P.A. Livingston, M. Mangel, M.K. McAllister, J. Pope and K.J. Sainsbury. 2004. Ecosystem-Based Fishery Management. Science 305 (5682): 346-347.
Pistorius, P.A. and F.E. Taylor. 2009. Declining catch rates of reef fish in Aldabra's marine protected area. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 19(1): S2-S9. (Website)
Pitcher, T.J. and D. Preikshot. 2001. RAPFISH: A Rapid Appraisal Technique to Evaluate the Sustainability Status of Fisheries. Fisheries Research 49: 255-270.
Pitcher, T.J. and W.W. Cheung. 2013. Fisheries: Hope or Despair? Marine pollution bulletin 74(2): 506–516.
Polovina, J. 1984. Model of a coral reef ecosystem, Part I: ECOPATH and its application to French Frigate Shoals. Coral Reefs 3: 1-11.
Pomeroy, R., Garces, L., Pido, M., Silvestre, G. 2010. Ecosystem-based fisheries management in small-scale tropical marine fisheries: Emerging models of governance arrangements in the Philippines. Marine Policy 34(2):298-308.
Pomeroy, R., R. Brainard, M. Moews, A. Heenan, J. Shackeroff, and N. Armada. 2013. Coral Triangle Regional Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries Management (EAFM) Guidelines. Honolulu, HI: The USAID Coral Triangle Support Partnership. (pdf, 6.8M)
Post, J.C. and C.G. Lundin (eds.). 1996. Guidelines for integrated coastal zone management. Washington DC, World Bank (Environmentally Sustainable Development Studies and Monographs Series No. 9). (pdf, 102k)
Precht, W.F., ed. 2006. Coral Reef Restoration Handbook. CRC Press.
Prein, M. and M. Ahmed. 2000. Integration of Aquaculture into Smallholder Farming Systems for Improved Food Security and Household Nutrition. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 21(4): 466-471.
Prince, J.D., N.A. Dowling, C.R. Davies, R.A. Campbell, and D.S. Kolody. 2011. A Simple Cost-Effective and Scale-Less Empirical Approach to Harvest Strategies. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil 68: 947-960.
Rahmstorf, S. 2007. A semi-empirical approach to projecting future sea-level rise. Science 315: 368-370.
Rasher, D.B. and M.E. Hay. 2010. Chemically rich seaweeds poison corals when not controlled by herbivores. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 9683-8.
Rau, G.H., E. Mcleod, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg. 2012. Ocean Conservation in a High CO2 World: The Need to Evaluate New Approaches. Nature Climate Change. DOI: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1555.
Raven, J.A. et al. 2005. Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Royal Society, London, UK.
Ray, G.C. 1988. Ecological diversity in coastal zones and oceans. Pp. 36-50. In: Wilson, E.O (ed.). Biodiversity. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., U.S.A.
Raymundo, L., C. Couch, and D. Harvell (eds.) 2008. A coral disease handbook: Guidelines for assessment, monitoring and management. Coral reef targeted research and capacity building for management program. St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia (pdf, 5.5M)
Raymundo, L.J., A.R. Halford, A.P. Maypa, and A.M. Kerr. 2009. Functionally diverse reef fish communities ameliorate coral disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 106: 17067-17070.
Resor, J. P. 2010. Debt‐For‐Nature Swaps: A Decade of Experience and New Directions for the Future. Rome, Italy: FAO. (Website)
Richardson, P. 2016. Seychelles Plans Blue Bonds to Develop Sustainable Fisheries. Bloomberg News. (Website)
Rivera-Posada, J., M.S. Pratchett, C. Aguilar, A. Grand, and C.F. Caballes. 2014. Bile salts and the single-shot lethal injection method for killing crown-of-thorns sea stars (Acanthaster planci). Ocean & Coastal Management 102: 383e390. (pdf, 1.4M)
Roberts, C.M., G. Branch, R.H. Bustamante, et al. 2003. Application of ecological criteria in selecting marine reserves and developing reserve networks. Ecological Applications 13(1): S215-228.
Roberts, C.M., S. Andelman, G. Branch, R.H. Bustamante, J.C. Castilla, J.E. Dugan, B.S. Halpern, K.D. Lafferty, H. Leslie, J. Lubchenco, D.A. McArdle, H.P. Possingham, M. Ruckelshaus, and R.R. Warner. 2003. Ecological criteria for evaluating candidate sites for marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: S199-S215.
Rodgers, K., E. Cox, and C. Newtson. 2003. Effects of mechanical fracturing and experimental trampling on Hawaiian corals. Environmental Management 31: 377-384.
Rodgers, K.S. and E.F. Cox. 2003. The effects of trampling on Hawaiian corals along a gradient of human use. Biological Conservation 112(3): 383-389.
Rodriguez, S. and A. Croquer. 2008. Dynamics of Black Band Disease in a Diploria strigosa population subjected to annual upwelling on the northeastern coast of Venezuela. Coral Reefs 27: 381-388.
Roff, G. and P.J. Mumby. 2012. Global disparity in the resilience of coral reefs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 27(7): 404-413.
Roff, G. and P.J. Mumby. 2012. Global Disparity in the Resilience of Coral Reefs. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 408: 3-10. doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2012.04.007
Rogers C.S. and G. Garrison. 2001. Ten years after the crime: lasting effects of damage from a cruise ship anchor on a coral reef in St. John. Bulletin of Marine Science 69: 793-803.
Rogers, C.S., L.N. McLain, and C.R. Tobias. 1991. Damage to marine resources in Virgin Islands National Park: often out of sight, but no longer out of mind. In: M.L. Miller and J. Auyong (eds.) 1991. Proceedings of the 1990 Congress on Coastal and Marine Tourism. Volumes I and II. (25-31 May 1990, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA). Newport, OR: National Coastal Resources Research & Development Institute. 561 pp.
Rosenberg, E., O. Koren, L. Reshef, R. Efrony, and I. Zilber-Rosenberg. 2007. The role of microorganisms in coral health, disease and evolution. Nature Reviews: Microbiology 5 (5):355-362.
Rotjan, R. and S. Lewis. 2008. Impact of coral predators on tropical reefs. Marine Ecology Progress Series 367: 73-91.
Rotjan, R.D., J.L. Dimond, D.J. Thornhill, J.J. Leichter, B. Helmuth, D.W. Kemp, and S.M. Lewis. 2006. Chronic parrotfish grazing impedes coral recovery after bleaching. Coral Reefs 25: 361-368.
Rouphael, A.B. and G.J. Inglis. 2001. Take only photographs and leave only footprints? An experimental study of the impacts of underwater photographers on coral reef dive sites. Biological Conservation 100: 281-287.
Rowan, R. 2004. Coral bleaching: Thermal adaptation in reef coral symbionts. Nature 430 (7001): 742–742.
Royal Society. 2005. Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Policy document 12/05. London: The Royal Society. (pdf, 1.1M)
Ruiz, G.M, J.T. Carlton, E.D. Grosholz, and A.H. Hines. 1997. Global invasions of marine and estuarine habitats by non-indigenous species: mechanisms, extent, and consequences. American Zoologist 37(6): 621-632.
Sabine, C.L., et al. 2004. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2 . Science 305: 367-371.
Sadovy, Y.J., T.J. Donaldson, T.R. Graham, F. McGilvray, G.J. Muldoon, M.J. Phillips, M A. Rimmer, A. Smith, and B. Yeeting. 2003. While Stocks Last: The Live Reef Food Fish Trade. Manila: Asian Development Bank.
Sale, P.F., H. Van Lavieren, M.C. Ablan Lagman, J. Atema, M. Butler, C. Fauvelot, J.D. Hogan, G.P. Jones, K.C. Lindeman, C.B. Paris, R. Steneck, and H.L. Stewart. 2010. Preserving Reef Connectivity: A Handbook for Marine Protected Area Managers. Connectivity Working Group, Coral Reef Targeted Research and Capacity Building for Management Program, UNU-INWEH.
Salm, R., T. Done, and E. Mcleod. 2006. Marine Protected Area Planning in a Changing Climate. Pp. 207-221. In: J.T. Phinney, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, J. Kleypas, W. Skirving, and A. Strong (eds). Coral Reefs and Climate Change: Science and Management. Coastal and Estuarine Studies 61. American Geophysical Union: 244 pp. (pdf, 1,1M)
Sammarco, P.W. and J.C. Andrews. 1989. The helix experiment: differential localized dispersal and recruitment patterns in Great Barrier Reef corals. Limnology and Oceanography 34: 896-912.
Samoilys, M. and N. Gribble. 1997. Manual for Assessing Fish Stocks on Pacific Coral Reefs.
Saueracker, G. 1997. The scourge of Ningaloo. Conservation Australia (ANCA) 2: 17-24.
Schofield, P.J. 2009. Geographic extent and chronology of the invasion of non-native lionfish (Pterois volitans [Linnaeus 1758] and P. miles [Bennett 1828]) in the Western North Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Aquatic Invasions 4: 473-479.
Schopmeyer, S., D. Lirman, E. Bartels, D.S. Gilliam, E.A. Goergen, S.P. Griffin, M.E. Johnson, C. Lustic, K. Maxwell, C.S. Walter. 2017. Regional Restoration Benchmarks for Acropora cervicornis. Coral Reefs. 10.1007/s00338-017-1596-3. (pdf, 690k)
Schopmeyer, S.A. and D. Lirman. 2015. Occupation Dynamics and Impacts of Damselfish Territoriality on Recovering Populations of the Threatened Staghorn Coral, Acropora cervicornis. PLOS ONE. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0141302. (pdf, 1.5M)
Schumacher, B.D. and J.D. Parrish. 2005. Spatial relationships between an introduced snapper and native goatfishes on Hawaiian reefs. Biological Invasions 7: 925-933.
Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. 2010. Global Biodiversity Outlook 3. Montreal, 94 pp. (pdf, 8.8M)
Semmens, B.X., E.R. Buhle, A.K. Salomon, and C.V. Pattengill-Semmens. 2004. A hotspot of non-native marine fishes: evidence for the aquarium trade as an invasion pathway. Marine Ecology Progress Series 266: 239-244.
Shafir, S., O. Gur, and B. Rinkevich. 2008. A Drupella cornus outbreak in the northern Gulf of Eilat and changes in coral prey. Coral Reefs 27(2): 379.
Shanks, A.L. 2009. Pelagic Larval Duration and Dispersal Distance Revisited. Biological Bulletin 216: 373-385.
Shanks, A.L., B.A. Grantham, and M.H. Carr. 2003. Propagule dispersal distance and the size and spacing of marine reserves. Ecological Applications 13: 159-169.
Shivlani, M. 2007. A Literature Review of Sources and Effects of Non-extractive Stressors to Coral Reef Ecosystems. Completed in Fulfillment of PO# DO320348 for The Southeast Florida Coral Reef Initiative Fishing, Diving and Other Uses Focus Team Local Action Strategy Project 19 Phase I and Florida Department of Environmental Protection Coral Reef Conservation Program. 19 pp. (pdf, 168k)
Short, F.T. and H. Neckles. 1999. The effects of global climate change on seagrasses. Aquatic Botany 63: 169-196.
Short, F.T., R.C. Davis, B.S. Kopp, C.A. Short, and D.M. Burdick. 2002. Site selection model for optimal restoration of eelgrass, Zostera marina L. Marine Ecology Progress Series 227: 263-267.
Siikamäki, J., J.N. Sanchirico, and S.L. Jardine. 2012. Global Economic Potential for Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Mangrove Loss. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 109(36): 14369-14374.
Silverman, J., B. Lazar, L. Cao, K. Caldeira, and J. Erez. 2009. Coral reefs may start dissolving when atmospheric CO2 doubles. Geophysical Research Letters 36: L05606.
Silverstein, R.N., A.M.S. Correa, and A.C. Baker. 2012. Specificity is rarely absolute in coral-algal symbiosis: implications for coral response to climate change. Proceedings of the Royal Society.
Smith, J.E. 2011. Algae. In: Encyclopedia of Biological Invasions. Simberloff, D. and M. Rejmanek (Eds.). Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.
Smith, J.E., C.L. Hunter, and C.M. Smith. 2002. Distribution and Reproductive Characteristics of Nonindigenous and Invasive Marine Algae in the Hawaiian Islands. Pacific Science 56(3): 299-215.
Spalding, M.D., M. Kainuma, and L. Collins. 2010. World Atlas of Mangroves. London, UK: Earthscan.
Spalding, M.D., R.D. Brumbaugh, and E. Landis. 2016.. Atlas of Ocean Wealth. The Nature Conservancy. Arlington, VA. (pdf, 12.3M)
Sparre, P. and S.C. Venema. 1998. Introduction to Tropical Fish Stock Assessment. Part 1: Manual.
Staples, G.W. and R.H. Cowie (eds.) 2001. Hawaii's Invasive Species: a guide to invasive pants and animals in the Hawaiian Islands. Mutual Publishing, Honolulu. 115 pp.
Stein, B.A., P. Glick, N. Edelson, and A. Staudt (eds.). 2014. Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C. (pdf, 7.9M)
Steneck, R.S. 1988. Herbivory on coral reefs: a synthesis. Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium 1: 37-49.
Steneck, R.S. and M.N. Dethier. 1994. A functional group approach to the structure of algal dominated communities. Oikos 69: 476-498.
Steneck, R.S., C.B. Paris, S.N. Arnold, M.C. Ablan-Lagman, A.C. Alcala, M.J. Butler, L.J. McCook, G.R. Russ, and P.F. Sale. 2009. Thinking and managing outside the box: coalescing connectivity networks to build region-wide resilience in coral reefs. Coral Reefs 28: 367-378.
Stevenson, S., B. Fox-Kemper, M. Jochum, R. Neale, C. Deser, and G. Meehl. 2011. Will there be a Significant Change to El NiÃ±o in the 21st Century? Journal of Climate: DOI: 10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00252.1
Sussman, M., B. Willis, S. Victor, and D. Bourne. 2008. Coral pathogens identified for white syndrome (WS) epizootics in the Indo-Pacific. PLoS ONE 3: e2393.
Sussman, M., Y. Loya, M. Fine, and E. Rosenberg. 2003. The marine fireworm Hermodice carunculata is a winter reservoir and spring-summer vector for the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi. Environmental Microbiology 5(4):250-255.
Swearer, S.E., J.E. Caselle, D.W. Lea, and R.R. Warner. 1999. Larval retention and recruitment in an island population of coral-reef fish. Nature 402: 799-802
Sweatman, H., A. Cheal, G. Coleman, M. Emslie, K. Johns, M. Jonker, I. Miller, and K. Osborne. 2008. Long-term Monitoring of the Great Barrier Reef. Status Report #8. Australian Institute of Marine Science.
Talbot F. and C. Wilkinson. 2001. Coral Reefs, Mangroves and Seagrasses: A Sourcebook for Managers. Australian Institute of Marine Science (Website)
Talbot, F. and C. Wilkinson. 2001. Coral Reefs, Mangroves and Seagrasses: A Sourcebook for Managers.
Talge, H. 1990. Impact of recreational divers on coral reefs in the Florida Keys. Pages 365-374. In: W. Jaap, editor. Diving For Science 1990. Proceedings Of The American Academy Of Underwater Sciences Tenth Annual Scientific Diving Symposium, October 4-7, 1990, St. Petersburg, FL (USA).
Talge, H. 1992. Impact of Recreational Divers on Scleractinian Corals at Looe Key, Florida. Proceedings of the Seventh International Coral Reef Symposium, Guam. 2: 1077-1082.
Teh, L.S., L.C. Teh, and U.R. Sumaila. 2013. A Global Estimate of the Number of Coral Reef Fishers. PLoS ONE 8(6).
Thresher, R.E. and A.M. Kuris. 2004. Options for managing invasive marine species. Biological Invasions 6: 295-300.
Turner, S.J. 1994. The biology and population outbreaks of the corallivorous gastropod Drupella on Indo-Pacific reefs. Oceanography and Marine Biology: an Annual Review 32: 461-530.
U.S. Coral Triangle Initiative Support Program. 2013. Climate Change Adaptation for Coral Triangle Communities: Guide for Vulnerability Assessment and Local Early Action Planning (LEAP Guide). Prepared with support from the United States Agency for International Development. (pdf, 5.3M)
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2004. People and Reefs: Successes and Challenges in the Management of Coral Reef Marine Protected Areas.
UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme). 2014. The Importance of Mangroves to People: A Call to Action. van Bochove, J., E. Sullivan, and T. Nakamura (eds.). United Nations Environment Programme World Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge. 128 pp. (pdf)
UNEP 2011. Taking Steps toward Marine and Coastal Ecosystem-Based Management - An Introductory Guide. (pdf, 10.6M)
UNEP and CIFOR. 2014. Guiding Principles for Delivering Coastal Wetland Carbon Projects. United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya and Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia, 57pp. (pdf)
UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). 2008. Second International Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World: Monaco Declaration. (pdf, 5.4M)
UNFCCC. 2008. UNFCCC Resource Guide for Preparing the National Communications of Non-Annex I Parties. Module 2: Vulnerability and Adaptation. (pdf, 657k)
Valiela, I., I.L. Bowen, and J.K. York. 2001. Mangrove Forests: One of the World’s Threatened Major Tropical Environments. BioScience 51: 807-15.
van Aalst, M. K., T. Cannon, and I. Burton. 2008.
Community Level Adaptation to Climate Change: The Potential Role of Participatory Community Risk Assessment. Global Environmental Change 18: 165-179.
van Oppen, M.J.H., A.C. Baker, M.A. Coffroth, B.L. Willis. 2009. Bleaching resistance and the role of algal endosymbionts. In: Coral bleaching: Patterns, processes, causes and consequences (Van Oppen, M.J.H. and Lough, J.M., eds.). Springer Ecological Studies 205, Berlin, pp. 83-102.
van't Hof, T. 2001. Tourism Impacts on Coral Reefs: Increasing Awareness in the Tourism Sector. Marine and Coastal Resource Management Consulting Saba, Netherlands Antilles. (pdf, 750k)
VCS (Verified Carbon Standard). 2015.. Coastal Blue Carbon in Practice. (pdf)
Vermeer, M. and S. Rahmstorf. 2009. Global sea level linked to global temperature. Proceedings National Academy of Science 106(21): 527-532.
Vermeij, M.J.A., J.E. Smith, C.M. Smith, R. Vega Thurber, S.A. Sandin. 2009. Survival and settlement success of coral planulae: independent and synergistic effects of macroalgae and microbes. Oecologia 159: 325-336.
Victor, S., Y. Golbuu, H. Yukihira, and R. van Woesik. 2009. Acropora size frequency distributions reflect spatial variable conditions on coral reefs of Palau. Bulletin of Marine Science 85(2). (pdf, 508k)
Voss, J.D. and L.L. Richardson. 2006. Nutrient enrichment enhances black band disease progression in corals. Coral Reefs 25: 569-576
Walker, B., C.S. Holling, S.R. Carpenter, and A. Kinzig. 2004. Resilience, Adaptability and Transformability in Social–Ecological Systems. Ecology and Society 9(2): 5.
Walters, C. 1986. Adaptive Management of Renewable Resources. New York: Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-947970-3.
Waycott, M., C.M. Duarte, T.J.B. Carruthers, et al. 2009. Accelerating Loss of Seagrasses Across the Globe Threatens Coastal Ecosystems. PNAS 106: 12377-81.
Weeks, R., G.R. Russ, A.A. Bucol, and A.C. Alcala. 2010. Incorporating Local Tenure in the Systematic Design of Marine Protected Area Networks. Conservation Letters 3: 445-453.
West, J.M. and R.V. Salm. 2003. Resistance and resilience to coral bleaching: implications for coral reef conservation and management. Conservation Biology 17(4): 956-967.
West, J.M. and S.H. Julius. 2014. The Art of the Possible: Identifying Adaptation Options. In, Climate-Smart Conservation: Putting Adaptation Principles into Practice, B.A. Stein, et al., Editors. National Wildlife Federation: Washington, DC.
West, J.M., C.A. Courtney, A. Hamilton, B.A. Parker, S.H. Julius, J. Hoffman, K.H. Koltes, and P. MacGowan. 2017. Climate-Smart Design for Ecosystem Management: A Test Application for Coral Reefs. Environmental Management 59: 102–117.
Whitfield, P., T. Gardner, S.P. Vives, M.R. Gilligan, W.R. Courtenay, R. Carleton, and J.A. Hare. 2002. Biological invasions of the Indo-Pacific lionfish (Pterois volitans) along the Atlantic coast North America. Marine Ecology Progress Series 235: 289-297.
Wilkinson, C. (ed.) 2004. Status of Coral Reefs of the World: 2004. Volume 1. Australian Institute of Marine Science. Townsville, Queensland, Australia. 301 p.
Wilkinson, C. and D. Souter. 2008. Status of Caribbean coral reefs after bleaching and hurricanes in 2005. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, Townsville, 152 p.
Wilkinson, C.R. (ed.) 2002. Status of coral reefs of the World: 2002. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Australia.
Wilkinson, C.R. 1998. The 1997-1998 Mass Bleaching Event Around the World. AIMS Research. (Website)
Williams, D.E. and M.W. Miller. 2010. Stabilization of Fragments to Enhance Asexual Recruitment in Acropora palmata, a Threatened Caribbean Coral. Restoration Ecology 18.s2: 446-451.
Willis, B., C. Page and E. Dinsdale. 2004. Coral disease on the Great Barrier Reef. In: Rosenberg, E. and Loya, Y. (eds.) Coral health and disease. Springer, Berlin, pp 69-104.
Wilson, J.R., J.D. Prince, and H.S. Lenihan. 2010. A Management Strategy for Sedentary Nearshore Species that Uses Marine Protected Areas as a Reference. Marine and Coastal Fisheries: Dynamics, Management, and Ecosystem Science 2: 14-27.
Wilson, J.R., S.R. Valencia, M.C. Kay, and H.S. Lenihan. 2013. Integration of No‐Take Marine Reserves in the Assessment of Data‐Limited Fisheries. Conservation Letters 7(5): 451-458.
Wittenberg, R. and M.J.W. Cock. (eds.) 2001. Invasive Alien Species: A Toolkit of Best Prevention and Management Practices. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, xvii - 228.
Wongbusarakum, S. and C. Loper. 2011. Indicators to assess community-level social vulnerability to climate change: An addendum to SocMon and SEM-Pasifika regional socioeconomic monitoring guidelines. Draft document. (pdf, 639k)
Wongbusarakum, S., M. Gombos, B.A. Parker, C.A. Courtney, S. Atkinson, and W. Kostka. 2015. The Local Early Action Planning (LEAP) Tool: Enhancing Community-Based Planning for a Changing Climate, Coastal Management 43(4): 383-393.
Woodley, C.M., A.W. Bruckner, A. Mclenon, J. Higgins and S.B. Galloway. 2008. Field Manual for Investigating Coral Disease Outbreaks. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Md.
Work, T. and G. Aeby. 2006. Systematically describing gross lesions in corals. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 70: 155-160.
Work, T., L. Richardson, T. Reynolds, and B. Willis. 2008. Biomedical and veterinary science can increase our understanding of coral disease. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 362: 63-70.
Work, T.M., Z. Forsman, Z. Szabo, T. Lewis, G. Aeby, and R. Toonen. 2011. Inter-specific coral chimerism: genetically distinct metazoa associated with tissue loss in Montipora capitata. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22869.
World Bank. 2016. Managing Coasts with Natural Solutions: Guidelines for Measuring and Valuing the Coastal Protection Services of Mangroves and Coral Reefs. M.W. Beck and G-M. Lange, editors. Wealth Accounting and the Valuation of Ecosystem Services Partnership (WAVES), World Bank, Washington, DC (168pp). (pdf, 6.1M)
WorldFish Center. 2009. Fish Supply and Food Security in Africa.
WorldFish Center. 2010. Policies and Practice for Resilience.
WorldFish Center. 2013. Community-Based Marine Resource Management in Solomon Islands: A Facilitator’s Guide. Based on Lessons from Implementing CBRM with Rural Coastal Communities in Solomon Islands (2005 - 2013).
Worm, B., R. Hilborn, J.K. Baum, T.A. Branch, J.S. Collie, C. Costello, M.J. Fogarty, E.A. Fulton, J.A. Hutchings, S. Jennings, et al. 2009. Rebuilding Global Fisheries. Science 325 (5940): 578-585.
Wright, L.D. and C.A. Nittrouer. 1995. Dispersal of River Sediments in Coastal Seas: Six Contrasting Cases. Estuaries and Coasts 18: 494-508.
Wylie, L., A.E. Sutton-Grier, and A. Moore. 2016. Keys to Successful Blue Carbon Projects: Lessons Learned from Global Case Studies. Marine Policy 65: 76-84. doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2015.12.020
Zhang, Q., Y. Guan, and H. Yang. 2008. ENSO Amplitude Change in Observation and Coupled Models. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences 25 (3): 331-336.