Resilience is defined as the ability of a system to maintain key functions and processes in the face of stresses or pressures by either resisting to or adapting to change. ref It can be applied to all marine ecosystems, including temperate, tropical, and polar regions, and can also be applied to social systems (e.g., human communities). The term “resilience” has been defined for both ecological systems and social systems. In other modules we also dive deeper into the meaning and provide examples of resilience for both coral reefs and coral reef fisheries.
- Holling, C.S. 1973
- Resilience and Stability in Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4: 1-23.
- Nystrom, M. and C. Folke. 2001
- Spatial Resilience of Coral Reefs. Ecosystems 4: 406-417.
Last updated August 1, 2016