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Raising the Voices of Pacific Island Women to Inform Climate Adaptation Policies

A new paper highlights the critical role that Pacific Island women are playing in climate adaptation and provides guidance for governments, NGOs, and development agencies on how to incorporate the needs and perspectives of women in climate policies and projects. Based on qualitative data from Pacific women leaders in conservation, development, and climate adaptation policies, key priorities to support climate adaptation include: (1) increased recognition for the importance of traditional knowledge; (2) greater support for local women’s groups, including strategic planning and training to access climate finance mechanisms; and (3) climate policies that consider alternative metrics for women’s empowerment and inclusion, formalize women’s land rights, and provide land for climate refugees. The authors emphasize the need for research, programs, and policies that recognize the importance of traditional knowledge in climate adaptation strategies. Bringing women and vulnerable groups into climate adaptation decision-making is critical to support sustainable and resilient communities and to avoid exacerbating existing gender-inequalities.

Author: Mcleod, E., S. Arora-Jonsson, YJ. Masuda, M. Bruton-Adams, C.O. Emaurois, B. Gorong, Berna C.J. Hudlow, R. James, H. Kuhlken, B. Masike-Liri, E. Musrasrik-Carl, A. Otzelberger, K. Relang, B.M. Reyuw, B.  Sigrah, C. Stinnett, J. Tellei, and L. Whitford
Year: 2018
View Abstract

Marine Policy 93: 10.1016/j.marpol.2018.03.011.

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Climate Change Promotes Parasitism In a Coral Symbiosis

Abstract: Coastal oceans are increasingly eutrophic, warm and acidic through the addition of anthropogenic nitrogen and carbon, respectively. Among the most sensitive taxa to these changes are scleractinian corals, which engineer the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth. Corals’ sensitivity is a consequence of their evolutionary investment in symbiosis with the dinoflagellate alga, Symbiodinium. Together, the coral holobiont has dominated oligotrophic tropical marine habitats. However, warming destabilizes this association and reduces coral fitness. It has been theorized that, when reefs become warm and eutrophic, mutualistic Symbiodinium sequester more resources for their own growth, thus parasitizing their hosts of nutrition. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sub-bleaching temperature and excess nitrogen promotes symbiont parasitism by measuring respiration (costs) and the assimilation and translocation of both carbon (energy) and nitrogen (growth; both benefits) within Orbicella faveolata hosting one of two Symbiodiniumphylotypes using a dual stable isotope tracer incubation at ambient (26 °C) and sub-bleaching (31 °C) temperatures under elevated nitrate. Warming to 31 °C reduced holobiont net primary productivity (NPP) by 60% due to increased respiration which decreased host %carbon by 15% with no apparent cost to the symbiont. Concurrently, Symbiodinium carbon and nitrogen assimilation increased by 14 and 32%, respectively while increasing their mitotic index by 15%, whereas hosts did not gain a proportional increase in translocated photosynthates. We conclude that the disparity in benefits and costs to both partners is evidence of symbiont parasitism in the coral symbiosis and has major implications for the resilience of coral reefs under threat of global change.

Author: Baker, D. M., C.J. Freeman, J.C. Wong, M.L. Fogel, N. Knowlton
Year: 2018
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Email for the full article: resilience@tnc.org
The ISME Journal. doi:10.1038/s41396-018-0046-8

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Effects of thermal stress and nitrate enrichment on the larval performance of two Caribbean reef corals

Abstract: The effects of multiple stressors on the early life stages of reef-building corals are poorly understood. Elevated temperature is the main physiological driver of mass coral bleaching events, but increasing evidence suggests that other stressors, including elevated dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), may exacerbate the negative effects of thermal stress. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the performance of larvae of Orbicella faveolata and Porites astreoides, two important Caribbean reef coral species with contrasting reproductive and algal transmission modes, under increased temperature and/or elevated DIN. We used a fluorescence-based microplate respirometer to measure the oxygen consumption of coral larvae from both species, and also assessed the effects of these stressors on P. astreoides larval settlement and mortality. Overall, we found that (1) larvae increased their respiration in response to different factors (O. faveolata in response to elevated temperature and P. astreoides in response to elevated nitrate) and (2) P. astreoides larvae showed a significant increase in settlement as a result of elevated nitrate, but higher mortality under elevated temperature. This study shows how microplate respirometry can be successfully used to assess changes in respiration of coral larvae, and our findings suggest that the effects of thermal stress and nitrate enrichment in coral larvae may be species specific and are neither additive nor synergistic for O. faveolata or P. astreoides. These findings may have important consequences for the recruitment and community reassembly of corals to nutrient-polluted reefs that have been impacted by climate change.

Author: Serrano, X. M., M.W.Miller, J.C. Hendee, B.A. Jensen, J.Z. Gapayao, C. Pasparakis, A.C Baker
Year: 2017
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Email for the full article: resilience@tnc.org
Coral Reefs 37(1). doi:10.1007/s00338-017-1645-y

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Ice Volume and Climate Changes From a 6000 Year Sea-level Record in French Polynesia

Abstract: Mid- to late-Holocene sea-level records from low-latitude regions serve as an important baseline of natural variability in sea level and global ice volume prior to the Anthropocene. Here, we reconstruct a high-resolution sea-level curve encompassing the last 6000 years based on a comprehensive study of coral microatolls, which are sensitive low-tide recorders. Our curve is based on microatolls from several islands in a single region and comprises a total of 82 sea-level index points. Assuming thermosteric contributions are negligible on millennial time scales, our results constrain global ice melting to be 1.5–2.5 m (sea-level equivalent) since ~5500 years before present. The reconstructed curve includes isolated rapid events of several decimetres within a few centuries, one of which is most likely related to loss from the Antarctic ice sheet mass around 5000 years before present. In contrast, the occurrence of large and flat microatolls indicates periods of significant sea-level stability lasting up to ~300 years.

Author: Hallmann, N., G. Camoin, A. Eisenhauer, A. Botella, G.A. Milne, C. Vella, J. Fietzke
Year: 2018
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Email for the full article: resilience@tnc.org
Nature Communications 9(1). doi:10.1038/s41467-017-02695-7

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Florida – Monitoring Reef Resilience


Coral Reef Resilience to Climate Change in the Florida Reef Tract

Location
Florida Reef Tract, Florida, USA

The Challenge
Climate change and a range of human activities threaten the natural resilience of coral reef ecosystems. Reef resilience is the ability to resist and recover from disturbances while retaining essentially the same function and structure. Managers can support the natural resilience of reefs by reducing their sensitivity to climate-related disturbances, such as coral bleaching, by reducing stress on reefs caused by human activities. Identifying resilient reef areas and better understanding their interaction with human stressors can help inform management strategies to better protect coral reefs in the future.

Southeast Florida’s coral reefs are located close to shore and co-exist with intensely urbanized areas. They are subject to impacts from a variety of natural and human stressors including, among others, coral bleaching and disease, invasive species, marine debris, land based sources of pollution, recreational and commercial misuse, and coastal construction. The challenge for natural resource managers in Florida, as with everywhere else reefs occur, lies in deciding which actions to implement and where, to best support resilience. Understanding spatial variation in resilience to climate change in the Florida Reef Tract was the goal of this project, with the aim being to produce information that can inform management decisions.

This project was a collaboration co-funded by NOAA’s Coral Reef Conservation Program, the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, and The Nature Conservancy’s Florida office. This project addresses this priority from Florida’s Climate Change Action Plan – Determine and map areas of high and low resilience to climate change in order to prioritize management efforts.

Actions Taken
Data Collection & Analysis
In order to understand the spatial variation in resilience to climate change in the Florida Reef Tract, the following seven indicators were included in the assessment of relative resilience:

  • coral cover
  • macroalgae cover
  • bleaching resistance
  • coral diversity
  • coral disease
  • herbivore biomass
  • temperature variability
Collecting data. Photo © Jessica Keller

Collecting data. Photo © Jessica Keller

Data used to develop these indicators come from field reef monitoring surveys (excepting temperature variability, which is remotely sensed) conducted in 2016 (no other years are included) as part of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program and Florida Reef Resilience Program. Both monitoring programs use a stratified random sampling design whereby surveys are completed within all of the various habitat types and sub-regions of the Florida Reef Tract. A tutorial on analyzing relative resilience can be found here.

For this analysis, the data collected are summarized using weighted averages within ‘strata’, which combine habitat type and reef vertical complexity (i.e. ‘PR_HR’ Patch reef high relief in Tortugas). There are eight strata in Tortugas, seven in the Florida Keys (FL Keys) and eight in Southeast Florida (SE FL). A single value for each indicator is produced for each of these 23 strata. Indicator scores are then made uni-directional (high score is a good score), the scores are normalized to the maximum value to standardize scores to a 0-1 scale, and the scores are averaged and re-normalized to produce the final resilience scores. The strata are then ranked from highest to lowest score and classified as follows, based on the average (AVG) final resilience score (0.77) and standard deviation (SD) (0.16):

  • High (>AVG+1SD)
  • Med-high (>AVG & <AVG+1SD)
  • Med-low (<AVG & >AVG-1SD)
  • Low (<AVG-1SD)

Results
For the Florida Reef track sites, the average score for the ‘raw’ resilience scores was 0.5 and ranged from 0.31 to 0.65. The average of the normalized, final resilience scores was 0.77 and ranged from 0.31 to 0.65. The standard deviation around this average was 0.16. Relative resilience categories are set as:

  • High (>AVG+1SD; >0.93)
  • Med-high (>AVG & <AVG+1SD; >0.77&<0.93)
  • Med-low (<AVG & >AVG-1SD; <0.77&>0.61)
  • Low (<AVG-1SD; <0.61)
Figure 1. Relative resilience to climate change in the Florida Reef Tract, based on data collected in 2016. Rankings from highest to lowest relative resilience (1-23) are shown after strata codes top left, and descriptions for strata codes are right. Relative resilience is greatest in the FL Keys and lowest in SE Florida. Results of a canonical analysis of principal (CAP) coordinates are inset and show strong groupings among the relative categories in multivariate space. High resilience sites are strongly associated with high values for coral cover, bleaching resistance, and herbivore biomass and low levels of coral disease; the opposite is true for low resilience sites. (from Maynard et al. 2017)

Figure 1. Relative resilience to climate change in the Florida Reef Tract, based on data collected in 2016. Rankings from highest to lowest relative resilience (1-23) are shown after strata codes top left, and descriptions for strata codes are right. Relative resilience is greatest in the FL Keys and lowest in SE Florida. Results of a canonical analysis of principal (CAP) coordinates are inset and show strong groupings among the relative categories in multivariate space. High resilience sites are strongly associated with high values for coral cover, bleaching resistance, and herbivore biomass and low levels of coral disease; the opposite is true for low resilience sites (from Maynard et al. 2017). Click to see larger image.

Among the 23 strata, there are 5 with relatively high resilience, 9 medium-high, 6 medium-low, and 3 with relatively low resilience (Figure 1). The Tortugas had 1 high, 4 med-high, and 3 med-low resilience strata. The FL Keys had 4 high, 2 med-high, and 1 med-low resilience strata. SE Florida had 5 med-low and 3 low resilience strata.

The strata with relatively high resilience are:

  • F_D_LR [1] – Forereef deep low relief in FL Keys
  • MC_PR [2] – Mid-channel patch reef in FL Keys
  • PR_HR [3] – Patch reef high relief in Tortugas
  • RF_HR [4] – Reef high relief in FL Keys
  • F_M_LR [5] – Forereef mid-depth low relief in FL Keys

The strata with relatively low resilience are:

  • NEAR [21] – Nearshore in SE Florida
  • RR_C [22] – Reef-ridge complex in SE Florida
  • RF_D [23] – Reef deep in SE Florida

Results of a multivariate statistical analysis (canonical analysis of principal coordinates) results indicate that high resilience sites generally had high values for herbivore biomass, coral diversity, coral cover and bleaching resistance; the opposite is true for sites with medium-low or low resilience (Figure 1). Results are shared within a project report as maps and show spatial variation in relative resilience, as well as spatial variation in each of the 7 resilience indicators included in the analysis.

How successful has it been?
A better understanding of the spatial variation in resilience to climate change in the Florida Reef Tract was gained, which can now be used to inform management decisions. The maps of areas of high and low resilience to climate change will help to prioritize management efforts and decide which actions to implement and where, to best support resilience.

The project was successful in that the planned analysis was completed and report written, and the results were shared with collaborating managers from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary.

Lessons Learned and Recommendations
Future research and communication activities recommended include:

  • Compile past reef monitoring data to examine trends in resilience indicators and resilience over the last 10 years
  • Examine spatial variation in the resilience of other (than stony corals) key habitat builders, such as barrel sponges, sea fans and soft corals
  • Examine site-based data to review resilience at a higher-resolution than strata
  • Produce fact sheets to educate senior policy and decision-makers on resilience concepts
  • Use resilience information to predict survivorship of corals transplanted from nurseries
  • Develop a dashboard that makes reef monitoring data and resilience summaries available as interactive maps to managers and the public

Funding Summary
Funding for the project was provided by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program, and The Nature Conservancy

Lead Organizations
SymbioSeas and the Marine Applied Research Center
Florida Department of Environmental Protection
The Nature Conservancy
NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program

Partners
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary
University of Miami RSMAS
NOAA Atlantic and Oceanographic Meteorological Laboratory

Resources
Assessing and Monitoring Reef Resilience
Coral Reef Resilience to Climate Change in the Florida Reef Tract (pdf, 3.5 M)

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Year in Review – 2017

Reflecting on the past year, there has never been a more critical time for effective coral reef management. In June of 2017, the world’s longest and most widespread bleaching event on record ended, with many reefs experiencing significant mortality. To address these – and other – challenges, the Reef Resilience Network continues to empower a global network of marine managers and scientists to improve coral reef management by sharing and implementing cutting-edge resilience science, inspiring greater collaboration, and working with global and regional reef initiatives to roll out guidance and best practices. Based on feedback from our managers, we have led in-person and online trainings, and have added new webinars, case studies, journal summaries, guidebooks, and modules on key topics to our website, reefresilience.org, which had over 150,000 visitors this year alone!

We are inspired by the thousands of reef managers, practitioners, and scientists in our Network and beyond, who spend their days working to reduce the threats facing reefs and supporting the necessary policies and programs to help our reefs to recover and thrive. We thank you and look forward and ahead to 2018 – the International Year of the Reef – and are grateful for the renewed attention to one of our world’s most precious resources, our coral reefs. See how we, as a Network, have improved reef management around the world.

RR Year in Review 2017_final

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Assisted Evolution: A Novel Tool to Overcome the Conservation Crisis?

Assisted Evolution Announcement PhotoThis symposium was live streamed as part of the Coral Restoration Consortium webinar series in conjunction with The Geomar Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel and “The Future Ocean” cluster in Kiel. Speakers shared information on new approaches for the conservation of coral reefs such as assisted colonization and assisted evolution and synthetic biology. View the presentation recordings below.

Presentations:

Welcome and introduction – Marlene Wall, Geomar, Germany

Session 1: Shifting paradigms in conservation: social, public and scientific landscape of conservation genetics
Objective: The aim of session 1 is to (i) discuss new approaches for the conservation of natural environments, such as assisted colonization, assisted evolution and synthetic biology and (ii) introduce the current legal, public and scientific framework of novel methods in conservation.

Session 2: Assisted evolution in corals: Opportunities, applications, challenges, and limitations
Objective: The aim is to introduce how assisted evolution might change our way of restoring natural marine environments. What new tools are available that can improve the selection of environmental stress resistance and be implemented in conservation? What are the promises and perils of such approaches?

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Coral Bleaching Futures

Coral Bleaching Futures – Downscaled Projections of Bleaching Conditions for the World’s Coral Reefs, Implications of Climate Policy and Management Responses

Increasingly frequent severe coral bleaching is among the greatest threats to coral reefs posed by climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) project great spatial variation in the timing of annual severe bleaching (ASB) conditions; a point at which reefs are certain to change and recovery will be limited. Previous model-resolution projections (approximately 1×1°) are too coarse to inform reef management planning (recognized, for example, in SAMOA Pathways, paragraph 44b). To meet the need for higher-resolution projections, this report presents statistically downscaled projections (4-km resolution) of the timing of ASB for all the world’s coral reefs using the newest generation of IPCC climate models (CMIP5). Results are reported by country and territory, grouped in bioregions based on the 10 UNEP Regional Seas programmes with coral reefs (also including countries or territories in or near the Regional Sea area but not participating in the Regional Sea).

Among the goals of the Paris Agreement adopted at the UNFCCC Conference of Parties (COP) in 2015 is to hold temperature “well below” 2°C while also pursuing efforts to stay below 1.5°C. This legally binding agreement entered into force November 4, 2016. This report evaluates the implications of the Paris Agreement for coral reef futures. Projections of ASB timing are compared between business as usual scenario (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5, which could represent emissions concentrations mid-century. This report makes the projections data and main findings publicly accessible to inform management and policy planning as well as to support education and outreach. The data are currently being used to inform conservation planning in the U.S., including Florida and Hawaii, French Polynesia, Indonesia, Australia, and Malaysia.

Author: United Nations Environment Program
Year: 2017
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Nairobi, Kenya. ISBN: 978-92-807-3649-6

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Climate Adaptation & Lessons Learned From Community Engagement in Belize

Watch on YouTube

September 27, 2017

Elizabeth McLeod, Climate Adaptation Scientist from The Nature Conservancy, shares the latest scientific guidance to help managers determine social and ecological vulnerabilities to climate change and other stressors. In addition, Dareece Chuc, Environmental Education and Communication Director from the Belize Audubon Society, shares successes, challenges and lessons learned implementing the LEAP (Local Early Action Planning and Management) Tool in Belize.

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