The second in a series of Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops included 17 managers from 12 countries and territories in the Western Pacific islands. This two-part course consisted of an intensive, four-month online course that was mentored by global and regional experts on various course topics. Participants had weekly assignments and engaged in virtual discussions to further enhance their learning experience. This was followed by a week-long, in-person workshop to build skills in facilitation, communication, and resilient marine protected area design. Participants left the workshop with specific training action plans.
The first in a series of Training of Trainers (TOT) workshops included 26 managers from 19 Caribbean countries and territories. Participants took part in the three-month, intensive online course based on the Reef Resilience curriculum which included weekly discussion postings, online assessments and one long-term management planning assignment. The in-person workshop focused on reef resilience principles and provided participants with the tools to become successful trainers including facilitation, presentation skills, evaluation and the development of training implementation plans.
Participatory 3D Modeling (P3DM) to Support Climate Preparedness and Response in the Pacific
Boe Boe, Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands; Ona Keto, Eastern Highlands and Manus, Papua New Guinea
Solomon Islanders are on the front lines of climate change, experiencing rising sea levels, intrusion of saltwater into freshwater supplies, changing rainfall and weather patterns, extreme weather events, and increasing sea temperatures. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) is working with governments, communities, and other partners in the Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea, and across the Pacific, to build social and ecological resilience to climate change by assessing vulnerability and bolstering climate preparedness through improved community planning and management.
Participatory 3D Modeling (P3DM) is a community-based mapping method which brings together local knowledge with elevation data to produce an accurate scale model of lands and waters. Community members integrate local spatial knowledge, land use and cover, and other features on a three dimensional model using pushpins (points), yarns (lines) and paints (polygons). On completion, data depicted on the model are extracted, digitized and plotted (e.g., in GIS) and the model remains with the community. The models are used to help communities to visualize, discuss, and prepare for threats that affect their water, food, income, and other community services.
- Three communities (Manus and Ona Keto in Papua New Guinea and Boe Boe village in the Solomon Islands) created Participatory 3D models to explore the impacts of climate change and potential responses with Geographic Information System (GIS) support from TNC and partners
- Villagers cut and pasted cardboard to make a relief map of their island; they mapped the community’s crucial infrastructure and resources (e.g., groundwater supplies, schools, clinics, agriculture, rivers, protected forests or reefs, crocodile nesting sites) to visualize what may be threatened by climate change and to inform adaptation options
- University of Wollongong researchers created a digital animation showing projections of king-tides and sea-level rise
- Community discussed impacts of climate change and adaptation responses using the 3D model
How successful has it been?
- The development of the Participatory 3D models increased the knowledge of community members regarding the impacts of climate change on their village and strategies for how they can protect themselves
- Villagers visualized how coasts were vulnerable, spurring dialogue about how to best plan for unsustainable land use practices, changing weather patterns, sea-level rise, and tsunami risk (e.g., loss of gardens to saltwater would mean paddling an extra hour or more each day, just to gather food)
- Local knowledge about the forest and marine resources and traditional land boundaries and sacred sites was identified and community elders are recognizing the importance of passing that knowledge to the younger generation. The process has generated excellent discussions between the different generations from each tribal area and enabled important stories and places and oral history to be captured
Lessons Learned and Recommendations
- Mapping is essential to support management planning for marine and terrestrial resources – Without a map, it’s impossible to visualize the state of resources, which is key to guiding the region toward sustainability and establishing best practices that will ensure the long-term health of local resources
- When communities build a scale model of their region—it reveals not just natural landmarks but how people relate to the environment as well
- The process takes time and commitment. In Manus, the workshop was supposed to last for 10 days, ended up taking 2 weeks. Villagers worked nights and weekends to complete the map
- By leaving the map in the community, it shifts the ownership of the information to the communities themselves rather than outsiders
- Climate change vulnerability mapping efforts are laying the groundwork for nature-based solutions to be mainstreamed into local, regional and national development planning
- Lessons from participatory community planning will be transferable to climate and hazard preparedness here and in other Small Island Developing States around the globe
- This project reinforced the importance of letting local people take the lead – According to Trish Kas, TNC’s Development Manager in Papua New Guinea, “by facilitating community efforts and helping them to gather traditional knowledge, we can complement their conservation projects with our science and planning expertise, but the impetus for our involvement has to come from them.”
The Nature Conservancy
Partners with Melanesians as well as provincial governments and tribal networks
Freshwater Cup Soccer and Environmental Competition Builds Reef Stewardship in Belize
Toledo District, Belize
Belize is well known for its incredible biodiversity, both terrestrial and marine. In the Toledo District in southern Belize, the Maya Mountain Marine Corridor is home to many species including iguanas, ocelots, jaguars, and over 500 species of birds as well as coastal ecosystems with mangrove fringed cayes, soft-bottom seagrass beds, and fringing reefs.
This area currently has a low but rapidly growing human population. Watersheds are still relatively pristine and water quality is high but land-based pollution is increasing. The main sources are agricultural runoff, soil erosion due to clearance of riverside forests, detergents from clothes washing in rivers and plastic trash from littering or improper disposal of solid waste. Land-based pollution impacts marine ecosystems but people living far from the sea can often be unaware of the impacts they have on the reef. The local nongovernmental organization, the Toledo Institute for Development and Environment (TIDE) is working on projects to protect water quality in southern Belize despite the growing population by enhancing stewardship of freshwater resources.
Belizeans love football – playing it, watching it, talking about it. Local tournaments are some of the most popular social activities in the south and competitions with prizes always draw a crowd. Capitalizing on this passion, in 2004 TIDE set up the Freshwater Cup. This is a football tournament with a twist – in order to enter, each team must first plan and execute a project to protect freshwater resources. Typical projects include planting trees to protect riverbanks, removing trash from creeks, painting murals celebrating nature or installing signs with environmental messages.
Originally, the competition was exclusively for adults. A children’s competition was introduced in 2007 and in 2011, the adult competition was removed in order to accommodate more children’s teams. The competition is now for primary school children (male and female) aged twelve or under. Approximately 20 schools participate.
TIDE’s Approach Step by Step
1. TIDE’s environmental education coordinator visits schools to present the competition, explain the rules, and encourage teams to enter.
2. In a second visit, the education coordinator gives presentations on aquatic and marine ecosystems, land-sea interconnectivity and human impacts; facilitates a discussion on problems affecting local freshwater resources and encourages teams to suggest solutions; and uses examples of past projects to illustrate how to design a good project and encourages teams to seek input on the design from the wider community.
3. Teams then plan projects tailored to their community’s needs and fill out a project plan form that includes a budget (typically less than US$250), funding plan and timetable for completion of activities.
4. Teams register for the Freshwater Cup by submitting their completed project plan form, a list of team members and a team contract agreeing to abide by the rules of the game and the principle of fair play.
5. TIDE staff members evaluate each project plan. Proposals are accepted or returned to the team for modification. A team whose proposal is returned must improve its project plan or withdraw its application.
6. Once approved, teams have four months to complete their projects. In this time, they receive at least one visit from the education coordinator, who monitors progress and provides advice and encouragement. A small budget is made available to support the projects.
7. By the deadline, each team must provide a project report. Teams unable to complete their project or provide a report must provide justification for an extension or be disqualified.
8. TIDE personnel judge the projects according to pre-determined criteria. They read the project reports and visit the sites, where the children present their projects. The winners are announced at the football tournament finals (see below).
9. The football component of the Freshwater Cup has two parts, a league stage and a knockout stage. First, male and female teams are divided into two leagues by geography (giving a total of four leagues). Over several weeks, each team plays the others in its league. TIDE provides the schools with equipment, arranges transportation for away teams, and organizes volunteer coaches and referees.
10. The two teams earning the highest number of points in each league advance to the knockout tournament, which is held on one day toward the end of the school year. On the championship day, the semi-finals, third-place play-off and final are played before the prize-giving ceremony.
11. First, second and third placed winners of the best environmental project and football tournaments (male and female) receive prizes consisting of school supplies, a trophy and a framed photograph of the team for the school, plus school supplies, school fees and winners medals for the individual team members.
How successful has it been?
The TIDE Freshwater Cup has been remarkably successful. It has mobilized schools and entire communities to develop greater awareness of and commitment to freshwater ecosystems.
Enhanced Environmental Stewardship
Through the mini-projects, many people have seized the opportunity to improve their local environment. “In many cases, the environmental projects transcend the football championship” (UNICEF 2009). For example, in 2007, the adult team from Bella Vista cleaned up an area at the edge of their village that had inadvertently become a garbage dump. They used a dump truck to remove the garbage to a nearby landfill. The following year, they took up the issue with the village council, constructed a new sanitary landfill and arranged regular waste collection for the village. Similarly, in 2008, the senior team in Jacintoville cleaned up a garbage dump and put up signage to discourage dumping. They formed an environmental club, which continues to organize regular village clean-ups.
The most popular projects have often been the ones that create green spaces in schools and communities. For example, in 2012 Bladen Primary School cleared trash from a local creek and created a pleasant riverside space with benches to enjoy nature. Other successful projects have included setting up organic vegetable gardens at schools, installing garbage bins by rivers and highways, tree planting and finding imaginative ways to recycle, such as building garbage bins and fences from used plastic bottles. There have been some bold education projects too. In 2013, the school team from San Marcos gave presentations to their parents, most of whom are farmers, to educate them on the harmful effects of pesticides and herbicides on aquatic life.
Players, classmates, and family members join in the environmental projects, thereby creating a domino effect of environmental awareness in the wider community. The reward that children get from successfully completing an environmental project (not just the competition prizes but also the appreciation and praise of their parents, teachers and peers) helps children to develop a sense of social responsibility and environmental stewardship. What is more, the TIDE Freshwater Cup is the first time that many of these children (and even teachers) are exposed to key environmental messages. Many had never heard of climate change, or were aware that the Belize Barrier Reef can be harmed by activities of people hundreds of miles inland. The majority of participating children seem to have internalized these ideas because school principals and teachers comment that since the Freshwater Cup, school compounds are much cleaner and they hear children telling others not to litter. TIDE provides the opportunity for these children to carry enhanced stewardship into their adult lives.
Other Social Benefits
Being part of a team that comes up with a shared vision for a project and successfully realizes it is tremendously rewarding for the children. It fosters teamwork and empowers kids by making them realize what can be accomplished when they work together. The sports component has given thousands of girls, boys, women and men the opportunity to participate in a sports competition, helping to promote a healthy lifestyle, gender equality, teamwork, self-esteem and friendship between people of different ethnic and cultural groups. Three members of the current Belize national team played in the TIDE Freshwater Cup. “Given the shortage of leisure activities and the overall poverty of the local area, the programme also acts as a sound source of entertainment that contributes toward a healthy lifestyle for adolescents and children” (UNICEF 2009). The competition has proven so popular that is has become a household name in Toledo.
To increase the impact of environmental projects, TIDE plans to start encouraging schools to conduct multi-year projects, and will be assisting other organizations with replicating the program within Belize and internationally.
The TIDE Freshwater Cup has won several international awards for innovation in sustainable development, namely: the CEPAL Social Innovation Award in 2008 (from among over 800 entries), the Green Apple Award in 2010, and the International Olympic Committee’s Award for Sport and Sustainable Development in 2012.
Lessons Learned and Recommendations
Prioritize schoolchildren: Originally, the TIDE Freshwater Cup only involved adult teams but we have gradually shifted to only involving schoolchildren. This is because children are generally more receptive to learning and behavior change than adults and working with schools brings advantages in terms of organization. Teachers ensure projects are completed on time and teams consistently show up for games. Lastly, family and friends almost always get involved in the children’s projects, leading to more widespread awareness in the community.
Support teams to improve their environmental projects: Teachers and students sometimes enter the program with a low level of awareness and do not know what effective steps they can take to protect freshwater ecosystems. Teachers also have many demands on their time and leading a project can easily slip to the bottom of the pile. TIDE overcomes this lack of capacity by providing guidance and encouragement at key junctures, such as:
- Meeting with school principals to gain their support
- Hosting classroom lessons on human impacts on freshwater ecosystems
- Facilitating project inception meetings with teams
- Visiting projects and calling team leaders to check on progress
- Providing a clear set of criteria for judging projects
- Publicly rewarding and recognizing good performance, not just with prizes, but with praise and certificates of appreciation
All this takes a lot of time and effort – we estimate at least one hour per team per week for the four-month duration of the projects – but it is worth it because you will be leveraging orders of magnitude more time and effort and building capacity for environmental stewardship at the same time.
Children can be effective agents of change but they must be enabled: Children and adolescents are open to new ways of thinking and can challenge older generations to do more about the world’s problems. They can be influential environmental advocates, as recognised by UNICEF (2009), who have sponsored the program for a total of three years. “There is no doubt that respect for children and adolescents as subjects with full rights provides enormous benefits for society as a whole. This process… includes involvement and respect for young people as prime movers in environmental protection and the prevention and mitigation of natural disasters” (UNICEF 2009). For this to happen, children must be enabled to come up with their own ideas and have their say. Unfortunately, busy teachers sometimes find it easier to write projects themselves without consulting the children. Do your best to encourage teachers to include the children in the project design as this will maximize the personal growth of environmental stewardship from within.
Encourage teams to include other stakeholders: The most successful projects often enlist the support of multiple stakeholders, such as village councils and community groups. Obtaining input from these stakeholders during project planning will help garner their support. Local businesses may be keen to be associated with a popular community environmental and sports event. Your organization and the participating teams may be able to capitalize on this to get sponsorship for team kits, equipment, transportation and prizes.
Use the games for environmental awareness: Once the environmental projects are done and the soccer competition is underway, it can be easy for some to forget stewardship of freshwater resources. There are several things you can do to ensure the environmental focus is not lost. Have the teams present their projects at the games – enthusiastic teams will give performances every bit as entertaining as the match! Insist that each team displays a banner illustrating their name and project. Get volunteers to talk to people in the crowd about ways they can protect downstream environments. And, if you can, get a PA system and have an MC commentate on the games and remind everyone of your environmental messages. Use the event to draw media attention and get your message out to a much wider audience.
Hold a debriefing: A focus group meeting to evaluate the program will provide useful feedback to continually improve.
Make the most of volunteers: Use local and international volunteers. Try to establish a committed set of long-term volunteers (e.g. referees, coaches, project leaders). Build their capacity through training and give them incentives to show they are appreciated.
Make the competition prestigious: Use official FIFA rules and, if possible, invest in kits, boots, trophies, official size and weight balls, pitch improvements, trained referees, floodlights, a PA system, video projection and other frills. These will give the event a degree of cachet and boost eagerness to participate.
Toledo Institute for Development and Environment (TIDE)
This case study was adapted from: Toledo Institute for Development and Environment (TIDE) 2015. Reef stewardship in Belize: TIDE Freshwater Cup soccer and environmental competition. A case study developed for the Australian Caribbean Coral Reef Collaboration.
Community Researcher Program Builds Reef Stewardship in Belize
Port Honduras Marine Reserve, Belize
The Port Honduras Marine Reserve (PHMR) is a national protected marine reserve in the Toledo district of Belize. It covers 40,470 hectares (100,000 acres) of mangrove and coastal ecosystems, and encompasses over one hundred small, mangrove-fringed cayes, benthic habitats comprising soft-bottom seagrass beds and fringing reefs.
A local nongovernmental organization, the Toledo Institute for Development and Environment (TIDE) employs rangers that carry out management and enforcement throughout the reserve, and until recently, had also been primarily responsible for monitoring in the reserve. However, the large area and limited staff resources made monitoring and effective enforcement difficult. The other main challenge is that of building support for the MPA and fisheries regulations among stakeholders. Until the Port Honduras Marine Reserve was founded in 2000 and TIDE and the Fisheries Department began to enforce regulations, local fishers were unaccustomed to being regulated. Fish stocks were, and still are, in a relatively healthy state, making it difficult to convince fishers that regulation is needed. In particular, the ban of gill nets in the reserve is perceived as having had a negative economic impact, increasing conflicts and hindering efforts to build stewardship.
With the logistical challenge of monitoring fisheries, endangered species, ecosystem health and water quality over 100,000 acres of water in the Port Honduras Marine Reserve, TIDE began the Community Researcher Program. Through this program, TIDE has trained 15 young people from PHMR’s buffer communities (five per year for three years) to SCUBA dive and conduct environmental monitoring, then employed the best performers to conduct monitoring in PHMR on an on-going basis.
The monitoring activities performed by community researchers include:
- Coral reef health using the MBRS method (specific to the Mesoamerican Reef) and AGGRA method (for comparison with the rest of the Caribbean)
- Seagrass health using the SeagrassNet method
- Mangrove ecosystem productivity using the MBRS method
- Turtle nest monitoring
- Conch and lobster surveys
- Water quality monitoring, including nutrient and sediment analysis
- Fish stock assessment (catch and market surveys)
- Lionfish monitoring and culling
- Collection of fish otoliths and observation of gut contents and gonad development.
As well as the monitoring techniques, community researchers are trained in:
- SCUBA diving (PADI Open Water Diver)
- GPS use and basic GIS analysis
- Emergency first response
- Basic environmental science, including basic coral reef ecology, land-sea interconnectivity and the impact of human activities.
How successful has it been?
The program has been very successful at addressing the challenges of monitoring and building support for the reserve. Zoe Walker, an independent assessor, concluded that “the Community Researcher Programme provides a good model for other organizations, with integration of community researchers into the science programme activities, and capacity-building targeted to ensure reliable data collection.” To date, the main successes of the program are:
Building Stewardship: The initiative has excelled at building passion for conservation in the young participants. Community researcher Willie Caal was studying to be a primary school teacher when he joined. Within six months, he had switched to natural resource management and is excited about a career in conservation. “Being a community researcher can actually change your life. It changed me because I got more chance[s] to be in the ocean. I’m now more interested in conservation, in protecting the environment.” Community researcher Alana Barillas put it this way, “it makes you appreciate the environment more. It makes you see what’s really happening. [For example,] you see what is affecting the sea grass and the benefits that sea grass brings in terms of the nursery and controlling sedimentation. Knowing that makes you want to cherish it.” Those community researchers who are also fishers say they have improved their practices. “I have more commitment to practicing the right things that will benefit the environment,” said one.
The impacts don’t end with the community researchers – they are rippling through the wider community. Fishers now have more confidence in the use of scientific research as a basis for reserve management. One recently commented that he believes TIDE’s research results because his own daughter is involved in the data collection. “I come from a fishing family,” says Willie Caal. “My family loves to see me working in this kind of field. They ask me about the abundance of conch and lobster in the sea. I tell them they are more abundant in the conservation zones and they are reproducing there.” The community researchers are ambassadors for conservation and sustainable management. They communicate with resource-users about human impacts on ecosystems in a way they understand, creating deeper understanding and building stewardship. Fishers are starting to buy in to the idea that resource management is something that should be done by the community, for the community.
Building capacity for conservation: The program has increased TIDE’s research and monitoring capacity greatly by enabling the survey of more sites more often and to a higher standard than before. It is also providing trained personnel for other organizations. For example, our community researchers have done monitoring work for the Healthy Reefs Initiative and collaborated on projects with Blue Ventures and the University of Belize.
Employment opportunities outside of fishing: TIDE is employing up to ten community researchers on a part-time basis. Furthermore, the training is enabling participants to find good salaried positions, for instance in the Belize Coast Guard and at a local dive resort. Over the coming years, we expect more to find jobs with the University of Belize, Fisheries Department and NGOs around the country.
Personal development: The program has created an exciting environment in TIDE’s research and monitoring department. Community researchers are exposed to exciting projects and interact with international volunteers. They like working alongside likeminded people passionate about the environment. With the initial group of community researchers, it was very difficult to get them to do anything without paying them. Now, most of them volunteer for extra duties because they care about the work and the research results, they want to gain experience and they enjoy the work.
A Level 2 TIDE Community Researcher course is being planned, in which participants will be trained in ecology, basic data analysis, laboratory techniques and communications skills and receive PADI Advanced Open Water Diver certification. Next steps also include having the community researchers talk at schools about life as a community researcher and what it means to protect the environment. They will also receive media training and act as spokespeople to help build reef stewardship across Belize.
Lessons Learned and Recommendations
Make an effort to recruit the right people: Having the right people is key and using a widely publicized competitive application process including an application form and interview will maximize your chances of finding good quality candidates. TIDE recruits people who not only represent the community but also have a commitment to the environment and the right aptitudes. To be eligible, candidates must:
- Come from the local community
- Be aged 18+
- Have graduated from high school
- Be able to swim
- Be contactable by phone and email
- Demonstrate an interest in the environment and willingness to learn
Put due effort into training: As with selecting the right participants, this is key. Get the training right and everything that follows will be easier. ‘Continual reinforcement’ is used throughout the training. Provide handouts to avoid note-taking and enable trainees to listen. Most importantly, make the trainees learn by doing. The best way to learn anything is to do it and practical, hands-on training works best for most people. Allow the trainees plenty of time to practice techniques under supervision and be prepared to throw out your initial data as practice runs. Even classroom lessons can be interactive – don’t just state facts, get them to discover concepts for themselves by asking them the right questions.
Save yourself time and resources by using teaching resources from organizations: Find out what monitoring methods other organizations in your area are using. Standardize methods with them and see what they can offer in terms of training – they may be able to provide methods training or at least materials. For example, TIDE’s coral health monitoring methods and protocol for monitoring mangrove productivity were taken straight from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef Survey manual. The Healthy Reefs Initiative has training materials for the AGGRA method and ECOMAR provides training and materials for turtle nest monitoring.
Quality control mechanisms are necessary: To ensure a high quality of data collection and management, quality control checks must be performed at multiple stages. Trainees must pass theoretical and practical exams to qualify as TIDE community researchers and all research and monitoring activities are carried out under the supervision of an experienced marine biologist. The supervisor performs duplicate measurements alongside the community researcher on the first occasion that they use each technique and at random intervals thereafter. Any discrepancies between the results are discussed and problems resolved. All data entry is double-checked and there is an accountability trail for all data (the names of the people who collected, input and checked the data are recorded). Only community researchers who demonstrate competence and reliability continue to be employed.
Ensure high safety standards: Clearly an accident could undo a lot of your good work and so health and safety must be maintained. TIDE’s community researchers are insured for diving (the cost is shared) and they receive training in emergency first response and practice implementing an emergency action plan. The research vessel is equipped with an O2 kit and first aid kit and TIDE ensures that a rescue diver is present on all monitoring trips involving diving and insists that community researchers submit their dive logs before they can get paid.
Toledo Institute for Development and Environment (TIDE)
This case study was adapted from: Toledo Institute for Development and Environment (TIDE) 2015. Reef stewardship in Belize: TIDE community researcher program. A case study developed for the Australian Caribbean Coral Reef Collaboration.
Can you believe it? A decade ago, TNC – with the support of partners AROUND THE WORLD– launched the Reef Resilience Network, creating what would grow to become a global network of resource managers sharing ideas, experiences, and expertise to effectively manage our coral reefs and reef fisheries. Curious to see what ten years can do for managers and reefs? Take a look below and here!
Special thanks to NOAA’s Coral Reef Conservation Program, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, and International Union for Conservation of Nature, whose committed support to the Network has helped managers innovate, accelerate, and leverage solutions for improved global coral reef health and restoration of reef fisheries.
Temporary Reef Site Closures During Coral Bleaching Thermal Stress
Malaysia (Kedah, Terengganu and Pahang states); Thailand (Trang, Satun, Chumphon, Krabi and Phnag Nga provinces)
From March to September 2010, a thermal stress event occurred across Southeast Asia. Satellite-based monitoring tools produced by NOAA’s Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program were used to describe thermal stress patterns in the region. These tools were used to help local agencies respond to the potential bleaching. Predicted coral bleaching was confirmed through in situ observations undertaken by the Department of Marine Park Malaysia (DMPM), Thailand’s National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department (DNP), university researchers, industry partners, and other stakeholders.
Undertaking practical, timely management actions before and/or during thermal stress events can reduce negative impacts on corals and reef ecosystems. Such actions include restricting potentially stressful activities on the reef such as construction, water sports (e.g., diving, snorkeling), and fishing, before, during, and after a bleaching event. In addition, enhancing overall reef health and condition (resilience) can help corals to resist environmental stress and recover more easily.
In Malaysia, initial reports by government, university, NGO, and industry stakeholders confirmed bleaching had affected 60-90% of corals in the region. In response, DMPM closed 12 out of 83 dive sites within Malaysian national marine parks to divers and snorkelers from July 2010 until the close of the tourist season in October 2010. The onset of the monsoon season extended this closure until early 2011. DMPM undertook consultation with key reef stakeholders and press releases by the Director General of DMPM publicly communicated the closures and the reasons for them. These were supported by comments from NGOs (including ReefCheck Malaysia), along with calls for research and action to enhance understanding of and protection for reefs.
In Thailand, thermal stress was greater than in Malaysia, and resulted in over 80% of corals impacted at all sites. In response, and following a recommendation from the Department of Marine & Coastal Resources (DMCR), the DNP closed dive sites in national parks in December 2010. Eighteen popular dive sites within seven of 26 national parks on both sides of the peninsula were closed for 6-18 months to allow coral damaged by bleaching to recover. During this period, public awareness of marine conservation was promoted through local media. In the Gulf of Thailand, bleaching impacts were lower and bleached coral became a tourist attraction which provided additional opportunities for outreach and education. In addition to the site closures, authorities monitored coral status during the closures, increased enforcement, and also increased anchoring sites at locations unaffected by the closures to reduce boats damage to reefs.
How successful has it been?
In Malaysia, DMPM surveys of affected reefs in October 2010 and in the early months of 2011 found that corals had mostly recovered, with only a loss of ~5% of corals. Based on these results, the temporary closures were officially lifted in June 2011 for the usual beginning of the tourist season.
In Thailand, averaged across all reef sites, less than 5% of the damaged coral had recovered by 2011. Site closures were therefore extended to 18 months at some sites. The amount of young coral found suggested that while reef recovery through recruitment was occurring in some areas; it was dependent on the health of upstream reefs which provided the necessary coral larvae for recovery. These results demonstrated the importance of considering the ecological connectivity between healthy and damaged sites to better understand recovery prospects and patterns.
Tourism industry responses to the closures in Thailand were varied. The Phang Nga Tourism Association sought to cooperate with government efforts to protect marine life and to encourage collaboration between government and private tourism operators. Phuket and Andaman diving communities expressed concern that the closures would lead to overcrowding at other popular sites outside marine parks, such as around Phuket. In response, efforts were made in some locations to cap tourist numbers and/or to limit visits to during high tides (to reduce accidental contact with corals). There was also concern regarding follow-on impacts of the closures on the tourism industry, such as reduced accommodation bookings. General consultation with industry partners and stakeholders continued through DMCR and DNP, including through engagement programs such as Strengthening Andaman Marine Protected Area Networks (SAMPAN) and in partnership with research organizations (e.g., the Phuket Marine Biological Centre).
Stakeholder learning workshops were held in multiple locations in Malaysia, Thailand and Indonesia during 2013 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge and build capacity for supporting social and ecological resilience to future bleaching events. Assessing the effectiveness of closures during coral bleaching events on promoting coral survival and reef recovery was identified as a key future research task through this study. Workshop participants acknowledged that selective site closure or reduction in usage could be beneficial for reefs, but also recommended implementing restrictions other than site closures during bleaching events. Other key responsive actions identified through the workshops included: (i) improving engagement, coordination, and communication between stakeholders about coral reef management issues; (ii) implementing education and outreach programs to raise awareness, particularly for snorkelers and divers; (iii) enforcing existing rules, particularly those related to marine parks and fisheries; (iv) improving communication and coordination during bleaching events by developing and/or socializing Bleaching Response Plans and forming Response Committees; and (v) developing and implementing codes of conduct and certification programs for divers, dive operators, snorkel guides, and tourism businesses.
Lessons Learned and Recommendations
- Establish and maintain effective stakeholder networks. Having these in place prior to disturbance events can establish trust relationships if/when responsive actions become necessary. In the event of mass coral bleaching, coherent and guided actions are needed (e.g., through the Malaysian National Coral Bleaching Action Committee that was established with various stakeholders following the 2010 event or through Thailand’s National Coral Reef Management Plan).
- Use predicted bleaching conditions from NOAA Coral Reef Watch tools to make proactive management decisions and support communication efforts.
- Prevent coral damage from snorkeling in the shallow reefs before, during and after disturbance events. This may involve establishing alternative sites or only visiting reefs during high tides.
- If temporary closure of diving sites is deemed necessary, clear and early communication of actions with industry stakeholders is important. Ongoing communication through any period of closure is also important; this includes informing the public and tourists concerning status of coral bleaching.
- Reduce sediment load onto coral reefs from coastal development, wastewater discharge from boats and land-based activities.
- Training and capacity building (e.g., in appropriate coral bleaching survey techniques) is important for local marine park rangers and other specialist monitoring groups.
- Together with network partners, conduct research and monitoring for coral conservation and restoration. For example, this can inform the success of temporary closures on coral health.
- Develop effective mechanisms for response project implementation under national coral reef management plans. This may include providing sufficient capacity and funding needs to relevant government agencies for monitoring and enforcement.
- Support multi-national reef conservation efforts to enhance recovery of disturbed reefs.
Rapid response assessment (funding sources and partners):
CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship
NOAA Coral Reef Watch Program
NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program
Australian Government’s Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (now the Department of the Environment)
The Nature Conservancy
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Prince of Songkla University
Stakeholder learning workshops (funding sources and partners):
Asia-Pacific Network for Global Change Research
CSIRO Wealth from Oceans Flagship
NOAA Coral Reef Watch Program
NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program
Reef Check Malaysia
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Department of Marine Park Malaysia
Prince of Songkla University
Department of Marine and Coastal Resources, Thailand
J.W. Marriott, Phuket, Thailand
Reef Check Indonesia
Coral Reef Alliance
Conservation International Indonesia
Wildlife Conservation Society – Indonesia
Department of Marine Park Malaysia
National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Thailand
Department of Marine & Coastal Resources, Thailand
Universiti Malaysia Terengganu
Top dive spots closed due to coral bleaching
Coral bleaching in Thailand: 18 dive sites closed to save coral reefs
Dive sites to remain closed so bleached coral may recover
Building Capacity for Socio-ecological Resilience to Coral Bleaching Events & Climate Change in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand
First observed severe mass bleaching in Malaysia, Greater Coral Triangle
South-East Asia Coral Bleaching Rapid Response (pdf)
Impacts of coral bleaching, recovery and management in Thailand (pdf)
U.S. Virgin Islands Climate Change Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Guidance: Promoting Resilient Coastal and Marine Communities
U.S. Virgin Islands
Coastal and marine communities of the US Virgin Islands (USVI), similar to other locations worldwide, are susceptible to the effects of climate change including increasing hazardous coastal conditions and loss of life-sustaining marine, coastal, and island resources. Climate change is anticipated to add to the stresses of our coastal environment by altering temperature patterns, increasing the likelihood of extreme precipitation events, and accelerating rates of sea level rise. Responding and adapting to such changes requires an understanding of the risks; weighing options for adapting to changing conditions; and instituting a suite of strategies to fund, implement, and measure response actions that have the most benefits to the ecosystems and communities that depend on them.
There is a growing volume of evidence that suggests in some situations, the most successful and cost-effective actions to protect people from the impacts of climate change are to preserve, enhance, and restore natural systems that provide critical protection, or that provide food, water, or work opportunities to local communities. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EBA), or nature-based adaptation to climate change, is a holistic response based on the premise and experience that by protecting, maintaining, and restoring natural ecosystems, we can reduce the scale and scope of impacts to human communities and to the natural systems upon which they depend. Ecosystems are the first line of defense against impacts of climate change and a key aspect of EBA is to design and implement solutions that integrate nature’s infrastructure – mangrove forests, wetlands, coral reefs, and beaches – with human infrastructure and socioeconomic needs.
With support from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Coral Reef Conservation Program, The Nature Conservancy’s (TNC) Caribbean Program led a project with the objective of developing decision-support tools and conservation strategies that will advance the implementation of ecosystem-based adaptation to climate change within the USVI. This initiative draws on stakeholder and expert knowledge of the territory, including understanding of existing development stresses, in order to identify critical socioeconomic and ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change and to identify feasible options for adaptation.
To support implementation of EBA in the USVI, TNC conducted the following: (a) socioeconomic vulnerability analysis; (b) mangrove migration analysis, and (c) identification of EBA sites. Results from these analyses were presented and discussed with local stakeholder and experts during the USVI Climate Change Ecosystem-based Adaptation Workshop held in June 2013.
Socioeconomic Vulnerability Analysis
A spatial analysis was conducted to examine the socioeconomic vulnerability to climate change for the 336 estates (neighborhoods) within the U.S. Virgin Islands. To assess the socioeconomic vulnerability of communities, TNC used 2010 census information to construct indices for the following variables:
- Social Sensitivity – suite of variables and aggregate view that provide a sense of a communities’ overall sensitivity to storm surge and climate change;
- Adaptive Capacity – represents human and civic resources that are critical components for coping with disasters including literacy, level of education, access to retraining programs, and other factors that determine how flexible individuals may be in adapting to new employment opportunities or shifts in living patterns brought about by climate variability or change
- Exposure – measures how much of a community is impacted by each inundation scenario by calculating the amount and percentage of roads inundated in different scenarios (e.g. 1 m and 2 m sea-level rise).
The total socioeconomic vulnerability was defined as a function of community sensitivity and exposure to a scenario, offset by its adaptive capacity (below). These scenarios effectively highlight the most susceptible places to flooding impacts.
A mangrove migration analysis was done to identify areas in the USVI where mangroves could potentially migrate in response to sea-level rise (SLR). Rising sea levels will inundate mangroves – forcing them to adapt by migrating to higher areas more suitable for survival. It is important for governments to protect potential mangrove migration lands that are favorable to mangrove growing conditions. In this analysis we used a simple rule-based model to identify areas where mangroves could potentially move based on impediments to landward migration and continuity to existing mangroves. Mangrove migration impediments used in this analysis were buildings, roads, slopes greater than or equal to 10%, and elevations greater than or equal to 5 feet. In application, the mangrove migration analysis selected all landward areas that were contiguous to existing mangroves until it reached an abovementioned impediment. The map below shows the results of the mangrove migration, with the current mangrove extent represented in green and highlighting the potential migration zones in red.
Identifying EBA Sites
Finally, sites to implement ecosystem-based adaptation were identified and mapped. When choosing optimal areas to implement EBA, the model considers areas that have high impact (exposure and sensitivity) and low adaptive capacity. The variables chosen to calculate the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity indices for all estates within the USVI were mapped, scaled, and assigned a category of high, medium, or low based on the statistical distribution of the range of values that were calculated. Estates that rank high in exposure represent a high percentage of potential inundation areas from sea-level rise or other flooding events. Estates that ranked high in sensitivity represent areas that are more likely to experience harm based on characteristics that exacerbate the effect of climate exposure. Estates that are both high in exposure and sensitivity constitute high impact areas and require high levels of adaptive capacity to anticipate, respond to, cope with, and recover from climate impacts. The map below shows estates that were selected based on the modeled high impact scores with low adaptive capacity within the USVI.
USVI Climate Change EBA Workshop
In June 2013, TNC convened the USVI Climate Change Ecosystem-based Adaptation workshop for decision makers, community leaders, researchers, resources managers, and climate change adaptation practitioners to discuss climate change impacts and adaptation as well as demonstrate methods on the use of geographic information systems (GIS) to identify optimal areas for implementing EBA in the USVI based on ecological and socioeconomic criteria.
During the workshop, TNC presented results from the socioeconomic vulnerability analysis, mangrove migration analysis, and the analysis to identify EBA sites. Workshop participants developed a vision for continuing the work of EBA planning for the territory. Using input from workshop participants and applying mapping tools, the ten coastal areas that were most vulnerable to climate change and least likely to respond were identified. These spatial decision tools were used to develop long-term strategies to create environments that allow for resiliency to changes over time.
How Successful has it been?
The US Virgin Islands Climate Change Ecosystem-Based Adaptation Guidance has been a useful tool to educate and inform government agencies of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities. It has been the bridge for climate change conversations across a change of administration at the USVI governor level. Recently the Guidance document led to funding for coral restoration, an investment in ecosystem based adaptation to increase coral reef resiliency.
Lessons Learned and Recommendations
- Climate change for small islands will become an increasing challenge. Understanding the vulnerabilities of both humans and natural systems has been a critical first step.
- During a change of government administration, this document was a critical communication piece that served to inform the new governor of climate change impacts and adaptation opportunities.
- Sharing this Guidance with a wide audience has been a challenge. The level of understanding of the public of climate change and its impacts in the US Virgin Islands remains low. Therefore the advanced technical nature of the analyses and results are not well adapted for all audiences. Effort should be invested in preparing materials to effectively communicate to your target audience.
This work was funded through a Cooperative Agreement between The Nature Conservancy and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Coral Reef Conservation Program.
The Nature Conservancy
Reef Responsible Sustainable Seafood Initiative – A Market-Driven Approach to a Sustainable Seafood Industry in the U.S. Virgin Islands
St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands
Together, overfishing and destructive fishing practices, are one of the top three stressors to coral reefs throughout the Caribbean, and have contributed to dramatic declines in coral abundance, distribution and health. The overharvest of “pot fish” (a term that locally refers to a number of fish species – many of which are herbivorous coral reef inhabitants), and the die-off of the herbivorous long-spined sea urchin (Diadema antillarum) have caused coral reefs in the Caribbean to shift to algal-dominated reefs. The introduction of the invasive Indo-Pacific lionfish, a fish without natural predators in the region, has also increased stress on reefs in the region. These fish may over-populate local reefs, removing important coral reef fish species, and further compromise the ability for coral reefs to remain resilient.
In an effort to reduce the stress on coral reefs from overfishing and harmful fishing practices, the Reef Responsible Sustainable Seafood Initiative was developed with the goal to encourage alternatives for consumption to important coral reef fishes.
The Initiative is comprised of the following four main components:
- Development and maintenance of a list of sustainably harvested food fishes and invertebrates of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI).
- Education and engagement of commercial fishers on fisheries regulations and the importance of healthy reefs to fisheries.
- The Reef Responsible Restaurant Certification to empower restaurants to support local commercial fishers through purchasing and serving sustainably harvested seafood.
- The Reef Responsible Awareness Campaign to help consumers make informed decisions about the seafood purchase.
Good Choice, Go Slow, and Don’t Eat Seafood List for the U.S. Virgin Islands
The first step for the Initiative was to form an advisory group to guide and develop activities. Fisheries staff from territorial (USVI Department of Planning and Natural Resources, Division of Fish and Wildlife—DPNR) and federal regulatory agencies (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration—NOAA) in the region, were recruited as advisory group members. Representatives from local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the University of the Virgin Islands working on fisheries issues were also selected. The group then worked to compile and agree on a list of sustainably harvested food fishes and invertebrates for the US Virgin Islands. The resulting Good Choice, Go Slow, and Don’t Eat Seafood List for the US Virgin Islands was developed based on current USVI local and US federal fisheries regulations. The list provides information on commercially important fish and invertebrate species caught in local U.S. Virgin Islands and U.S. federal waters and uses the following three easy to understand categories to inform decisions about the seafood purchase:
After the list was developed work began to engage and educate fishers, restaurant owners and consumers on sustainable seafood options.
Education and Engagement of Commercial Fishers
In partnership with local and federal fisheries management agencies DPNR and NOAA fisheries, reef responsible training information has been integrated in to the annual process for fishing and vessel registration. Trainings are given as part of the registration process each year and are designed to increase participants’ understanding of fisheries regulations including seasonal closures, gear restrictions, and size limits. Trainings also deliver information on how catching seafood according to regulations can support the future of the USVI commercial fishery. Fishers are also connected to local restaurants that express interest in purchasing locally harvested sustainable seafood. As a result of this partnership a new program activity is underway to work with the Fisheries Advisory Council and the local and federal fisheries agencies to develop criteria for certification of sustainable seafood fishers.
Reef Responsible Restaurant Certification
The Reef Responsible Restaurant Certification was developed to empower restaurants to support local commercial fishers through purchasing and serving sustainably harvested seafood. To become a certified Reef Responsible Certified Restaurant, owners, chefs and wait staff undergo comprehensive training. The trainings are designed to increase participant understanding of how purchasing, serving and consuming locally harvested seafood can positively influence the future of the USVI commercial fishery and coral reefs. Participants are provided with outreach materials with information based on the best available science and are briefed on the negative impacts from the overharvest of herbivorous fishes, which play an important role to remove algae from reefs and provide space for corals to thrive. They also learn about seasonal closures and receive calendars with closure and catch size information. Participants are also introduced to the Good Choice, Go Slow, and Don’t Eat seafood list. Additionally, cooking demonstrations are provided on how to prepare “good choice” fish like invasive lionfish.
The Reef Responsible Restaurant Certification program is voluntary and after the training participating restaurants must commit: 1) to support local fishers, 2) to purchase and serve fish that adhere to size limits and seasonal closure rules, 3) not to purchase or serve fish on the “Don’t Eat” portion of the Good Choice, Go Slow, and Don’t Eat Seafood List for the USVI and 4) to spread awareness of Reef Responsible information through restaurant staff and patrons. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) staff and partners visit the restaurants throughout the year to check menus and specials making sure that the fish being served meets the Reef Responsible guidance listed above.
Restaurants are required to have participation at the training of staff members responsible for purchasing seafood. They are also encouraged to have wait staff attend trainings so they better understand and communicate Reef Responsible seafood options with restaurant patrons. If wait staff of an interested restaurant cannot attend the training it is requested that certified restaurant owners provide training information to staff.
Once the training is completed, the restaurant is certified as a Reef Responsible Restaurant, receives a plaque to showcase in the restaurant and is celebrated for their commitment through free advertising supported by TNC program staff. Newspaper, radio, special event and social media coverage is used to promote certified restaurants. Connections have also been made with the department of tourism to list certified restaurants on their website. The program has formed a successful partnership with the Taste of St. Croix, a premier food and wine event on the island. Reef Responsible Certified Restaurants are acknowledged at the event to further encourage community patronage. At the event the program also has a booth to provide information for interested restaurants on the program and holds lionfish cooking demonstrations. Interested restaurants are then invited to participate in Reef Responsible training workshops. See an example of the workshop invitation here.
The following outreach materials were developed to support the Training and Certification:
- Good Choice, Go Slow, and Don’t Eat Seafood List for the USVI
- Seasonal Closures Calendar
- USVI Fish Fact Cards
- Reef Responsible Certified Restaurant Plaque
Reef Responsible Awareness Campaign
The Reef Responsible Awareness Campaign was designed to create community support for the Reef Responsible certified restaurants and the overall awareness objectives of the Reef Responsible Sustainable Seafood Initiative. The campaign targets seafood consumers through newspaper articles, advertisements, radio talk shows, social media and events (such as A Taste of St. Croix and St. Croix ReefJam) to share information about the importance of healthy reefs and how purchasing locally, sustainably sourced seafood can help support reef recovery. Through the campaign, we also encourage people to ask questions and learn more about the seafood that they purchase and consume, whether it’s from a restaurant or directly from a commercial fisher.
How Successful has it been?
By engaging multiple stakeholders, promoting reef responsible seafood alternatives (i.e. lionfish), and highlighting the benefits to people and reefs of sustainable seafood, this Initiative has the promise to reduce fishery-related stressors, helping to build the resiliency of USVI coral reefs. The Reef Responsible Restaurant Certification was launched in April 2014 at A Taste of St. Croix where nine initial certified restaurants were announced. Since then an additional 5 restaurants have been certified as Reef Responsible restaurants making the new total 14. One of the originally certified restaurants closed in 2015. To date all certified restaurants have successfully followed through on their Reef Responsible commitments. The 14 certified restaurants are celebrated for their commitment to a sustainable seafood industry for the U.S. Virgin Islands. They have also applauded TNC and the Sustainable Seafood Initiative partners for leading the development and implementation of this program, and are excited to be better connected to local fishers. Training participants have also been helping to encourage other restaurant owners and staff to become certified. The USVI Department of Tourism has expressed interest in the expansion of the Reef Responsible Restaurant Certification to St. Thomas and St. John as well as interests to replicate this program in the British Virgin Islands and in the Bahamas. Based on information gathered in follow up visits to certified restaurants, to date all have successfully followed through on their Reef Responsible commitments.
Current Certified Restaurants include: Savant, Dashi, Café Christine, Twin City Coffee House, The Mermaid, Empress Fresh Foods, eat @ cane bay, Rhythms at Rainbow, Above the Cliff, Ital In Paradise, Zion Modern Kitchen, Shoreline at Chenay, La Riene Chicken Shack, and Kendrick’s at Buccaneer.
Lessons Learned and Recommendations
The Reef Responsible Sustainable Seafood Initiative has received support from a diverse group of stakeholders including, fishers, private sector restaurants, fisheries managers and NGOs. This is likely a result of the transparent and inclusive processes for development and implementation of Initiative activities.
Important lessons include:
- When developing seafood lists, seasonal closure calendars, and other outreach materials it is critical to use the best available science and current local fisheries rules and regulations.
- Develop professional outreach materials. Restaurants are profit- and consumer- driven and will appreciate polished materials. If possible solicit communications expertise for the development of materials and media products. This will help ensure they join the program.
- Support a group of restaurants certifying at the same time. This creates a peer group of restaurants and helps increase excitement and support for certification.
- The support and buy-in of local fishers to the Good Choice, Go Slow, and Don’t Eat Seafood List was very important. If the fishers and fisheries council had not supported the list we would not have proceeded with the certification effort. Their support for the list gave it and the Reef Responsible activities increased credibility.
- Use a transparent process to develop sustainable seafood lists. Share information with all stakeholders on how the list was developed.
- Use the best available science and regulations to develop the list and training materials.
- Be flexible and make sure that the times of trainings or meetings are convenient for your target audience. For example the restaurant workers often cannot meet on evenings or weekends. Fishers as well cannot often attend meetings during normal business hours.
- Plan for capacity to support communications for certified restaurants. Do not underestimate the time or expertise it takes to support this aspect of the activities.
- The use of YouTube videos to share how to breakdown and prepare lionfish were very useful and expanded the reach and accessibility of trainings. These videos could be used and shared by participants outside of official trainings.
The Nature Conservancy
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration USVI Fisheries Liaison
The Reef Responsible Program is a collaborative effort among:
The Nature Conservancy US Virgin Islands
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Conservation Program
USVI Division of Fish and Wildlife
The Marine Education and Outreach USVI Style’s Initiative – Don’t Stop Talking Fish Project
Virgin Islands Marine Advisory Service
St. Croix Reef Jam